A Reply to Elise Crull, The Schrödinger-Newton equation as non-relativistic limit of self-gravitating Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields. Thanks for the reference of Coleman's 1961-paper. Note that the notions of 'boson' and 'fermion' are defined by particular 'symmetries' of the hypotron configuration numbers. The fact that the photon is without electric charge means that it doesn't interact with another photon (electromagnetism is a long range interaction), at difference of what happens with weak and strong interactions. The scientists likely better prepared for this task would be those working in the analysis of the data from the LHC experiments. Those not interested in this topic should go into some other debate. Absorption of a photon means, by definition, the transition between a state of n photons to a state of n-1 photons. It has then mass and energy. However, the electrons cannot choose any orbit they wish. Since this does not happen (no pair of e- e+ is created through its absorption) one must assume that the photon has not been dissociated and therefore endures in an energyless state. One of these trials leads to the values of mass ratios mentioned in the text of RG-project-goal of my project 'Hypotron Theory'. When it carries energy, i.e. Pages 5. In those situations there is a gap in the electron spectrum. (Jr.) On the classical Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics, the inertia problem and the Feynman proper time paradigm. I would like to highlight what has been my aim in initiating this forum. 4. In a molecule you are right that there are bonding states (also antibonding) with hopping electrons to join the atoms. According to the formula, since the photon has no mass its energy should be null. Sorry but let me to come back to my previous question. ", Professor John Blamire, electrons and energy, BIOdotEDU. 3, p. 187-212, and by Rodrigo Medina in the work "Radiation reaction of a classical quasi-rigid extended, particle", J. Phys. The strong bond between e.g. But in its absorption by a material it just loose the energy related to its wavelength without loosing its structural bonding energy of 1.02 MeV, energy that should be brought by the absorber in order to get dissociated. The analogy was just to make sure you correctly understood the type of bonding used in the framework of the Orbital Model. I’ve never encountered that concept. The last one is very learning and also solves the well known "4/3"-problem formulated by Abraham, Lorentz and Dirac more than 100 years ago. I said: a photon can be interpreted as a bound state of q+ and q-. The discussion has focused on words about (b), ignoring the constraints coming from (a). Such a model of a photon opens a variety of possibilities to understand quantum physical phenomenons, in particular the Mach-Zehnder phenomenon and related "which-way" experiments in a qualitative manner without using any notions of mystic interference of "probability amplitudes". Try to get answers by yourself. Elise Crull (Found Phys. The spectra lines will not shift, it will get lighter. "Mass" of a free object that carries energy P_0 = E/c is given by the "length" of the four momentum (P_0,P_1,P_2,P_3). How do you think about the answers? Well, we could make a parallelism with the atom, which may have different excited states, i.e. But in solids there are special effects which makes an excited state without decaying in the fundamental state due to have intermediate forbidden states to avoid the photon to be emitted. it does not “shine” anymore, and hence it cannot be seen anymore. How to measure the results is a totally different question.). This doesn't mean that one is computing the mass of the muon, however and there's a reason for that, that's well understood. C what color is the emitted photon d what happens to. Doesn’t this fact suggest something known? The idea that hadrons as well as leptons and photons and some other 'force' mediating objects are compound systems of 2 types of ultimate building blocks of matter, called 'hypotrons' is the central issue of the 'hypotron theory'. Cartesian coordinate systems in combination with polar coordinate systems achieve this ordering. And even the idea that on any scale it would be possible to identify 'individuals' as countable entities, is an artefact. Your “annihilation operator” cannot be a proof of anything, it is just a mathematical tool. It does not have an option to take part of the photon - just like a square peg does not have an option to fit into a round hole. If the sample is not very thick, it can come out with diminished amplitude. This is why when Astronomers take spectra of stars there are absorption lines, because some atoms absorbed some of the photons. The criticism to the CERN and the selling of their research using fantastic names is fully shared with you. In CPH Theory, photons are combination of positive and negative virtual photons. In that context the absorption of a photon means that the energy packet goes into somemthing else, but the carrier (the "informaton) put his way further with the speed of light. They are restricted to orbits with only certain energies. So, instead to come up with a variety of invented primordial particles, the QOD resorts only on quantum numbers, which provide the diversity of quantum states of the structural orbital of elementary particles. The dialogue would be more interesting if you would pay more attention about what is said and do not come up with wrong interpretation. J. Phys. Unless this issue is addressed, the model is useless. Now you turn off the light, then you do not see anymore the bulb. That's why it doesn't make sense to talk of the muon as an excited state of an electron: the corresponding creation operator is non-local. I didn’t get at first what you wanted to exactly stress. I am quite sure it could be expressed in an easier mathematical framework. the atom ejects a photon. In order to start going into the topic, let us consider two alternatives. The desintegration in general if you have only electromagnetic interaction? Furthermore, “Publish or perish” may not be so wise after all and publishing compulsivity may have the opposite effect. the photon, seen as an electric dipole it then appears a lot of concerns to be solved. I agree with your two posts, however they do not exactly answer the question. “When it has this energy, it reaches the threshhold for pair cration and that energy goes elsehere”. In Dirac theory the electron has a spin degree of freedom. Now, when applying this standpoint and considering the structure of neutral particles, such as e.g. Similarly, an atomic nucleus is a bound state of protons and neutrons. Physics is about the measurable stuff. Electrons move to lower energy levels when specific quantities of energy are released (i.e. a compound object of 'tripolon' and 'anti-tripolon' (called 'tripolonium') can be thought of representing a 'Higgs particle', provided this 'Higgs particle' really and undoubtly exists. Well, the two H atoms share their peripheral electrons, forming so a bond between them. Let me illustrate this. What is largley absent from Standard Model, is the detailed mechanics, as is fairly well. In order to preserve the debate to end up being chaotic, I will not answer to those that manifestly have not previously read the paper: Space, this great unknown. In addition, new experiment shows that the probability of absorption at each moment depends on the photon's shape, also photons are some 4 meters long which is incompatible with unstructured concept that means trying to describe the structure of photon is reasonable. a variety of quarks and gluons. How do you explain the repulsion of the electric charge in the nucleus? All that I have is a humble culture of how the present physics works and what are its basic laws. Metaphysical expressions don't count-unless they can be identified with calculations, in which case, personal opinions don't matter (the word ``adversity'' is meaningless in this discussion). Fig. Because the known particles have properties beyond that of electric charge, that's why. If it's equivalent, which formulation to use is a matter of taste (that's what ``more handy'' means). This process can be described by the action of an operator on the state of n photons that, indeed, destroys a photon and that's why it's called an annihilation operator. If the neutron shell is equivalent to what's known about the neutron, it doesn't matter. 4. Instead the QOD (Quantum Orbital Dynamics) only resort to the electric charges q- and q+, to which is always associated a wave function Ψ that defines each specific quantum state. The electrons orbits a proton. If you just fool around without contributing efficiently to the issue, your employer may just fire you. It has become a ballast for an open progress of elementary particles physics. They block process with impunity by silencing all voices in disagreement. Indeed the photon energy (not always all of it) is transferred to any particle it strikes. Let’s suppose that to have mass the spring should be strained. 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