Bulk Modulus. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Tg: Melting point Temperature T Glass transition temperature Glass transition region /leathery Glassy Relaxation modulus erel(t 1) Viscous flow Rubbery flow Rubbery Tm: Figure A1.22. 1 GPa = 10 9 Pa (N/m 2); Stainless steel with Bulk Modulus 163 10 9 Pa is aprox. It also is a factor in the amount of energy stored in solid material in the Earth's crust. G = Modulus of Rigidity. In contrast, the work conducted by Paik et al showed that the elastic modulus of polypropylene (PP) nanoparticles was higher than that of the bulk material. For example, the value of K for steel is 1.6×10 11 N/m 2 and the value of K for glass is 4×10 10 N/m 2 . 1. Other moduli describe the material's response to other kinds of stress: the shear modulus describes the response to shear, and Young's modulus describes the response to linear stress. the substance's resistance to uniform Its unit is N/m 2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1 … Shear modulus, μ, is the ratio of shearing (torsional) stress to shearing strain. In the glassy region, the increase in modulus due to cross-linking is relatively small. v / v K 21. In confined compression, reported effective modulus of human, non-degenerate NP is 1.0 MPa (Johannessen and Elliott, 2005), and bulk modulus is 1720 MPa (Yang and Kish, 1988). Young’sModulus 2. Young’s modulus, E, is the ratio of uniaxial compressive (tensile) stress to the resultant strain; Bulk modulus, K, is the change in volume under hydrostatic pressure (i.e., the ratio of stress to strain) (K is the reciprocal of compressibility.) The stresses can be resolved into nine components and the stress state can be described in terms of stress tensor as follows: Besides, the more the value of K for a material, the higher is its nature to be incompressible. Fairly compressible fluids have a low bulk modulus and slightly compressible fluids have a high bulk modulus. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Bulk Modulus for Liquids. The bulk modulus and the coefficient of cubical thermal expansion can be used together to compute the pressure rise in a closed system subjected to an in… K = E / 3 (1 - 2 r) (1) where . Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Bulk Modulus 160 GPa is to be reduced in Hooke’s Law Modulus of Elasticity, E = Direct stress Direct strain Also: For Shear stress: Modulus of rigidity or shear modulus, G = Shear stress Shear strain Also: Volumetric strain, is proportional to hydrostatic stress, within the elastic range i.e. This change, or deformation, is called strain (ε). This change, or deformation, is called strain (ε). Hence, the tensile modulus, E, can be approximated to 3G, following Eq. Shear modulus M c is a measure of the crosslink density; the smaller the value of Mc, the higher the cross-link density. Shear modulus M c is a measure of the crosslink density; the smaller the value of Mc, the higher the cross-link density. increase needed to cause a given relative The applied pressure reduces the volume of a material, which returns to its original volume when the pressure is removed. Upcoming SlideShare. EXAMPLE: MIL-H-83282 oil has a coefficient of cubical thermal expansion of 0.00046/°F. Rubbery materials have high values of bulk modulus (1.5 GPa to 2 GPa), low shear modulus (0.5 MPa to 10 MPa), and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.4995. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The stresses can be resolved into nine components and the stress state can be described in terms of stress tensor as follows: (3). DEFINE FLUID A fluid (or) liquid, which is capable of flowing. Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) Homopolymer 183,000 psi 1,300 MPa Copolymer 155,000 psi 1,100 MPa Poisson’s Ratio 0.42 0.42 Hardness Shore D Scale 55 – 65 55 – 65 Rockwell R Scale Homopolymers 80 - 110 80 - 110 Random and Impact Copolymers 45 - 95 45 - … Vi = initial volume in m 3. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This requires a pressure increase In simple terms, it involves measuring a material's response to an oscillating stress. The bulk modulus for a liquid is defined as the ratio of a change in pressure to the relative change in volume. : called bulk modulus. Source: Linkedin Slideshare. K sat1 is the bulk modulus of a porous rock saturated with fluid-1 (bulk modulus K f1), K sat2 is the rock bulk modulus saturated with fluid-2 (bulk modulus K f2), K m is the mineral bulk modulus, K sk is the dry frame bulk modulus, and ϕ is the porosity. The bulk modulus is a constant the describes how resistant a substance is to compression. Understanding bulk modulus, as well as looking at some of its real world applications. logarithm of the ratios of Young’s modulus is shown in Fig. A fluid is a substance that continually deforms under an applied shear stress Liquids are like water, milk, air, steam. 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