Along with many other theological works, both are known for their early and compelling arguments that the Holy Spirit is in fact God. Nazianzus left it to others to develop the scriptural basis for affirming the Holy Spirit as God. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, Was crucified, died, and was buried. He was a younger brother of Basil the Great and a good friend of Gregory of Nazianzus. A second son, Caesarius, was born soon after. North Bay, ON, P1B 0C7, Philadelphia Conference on Reformed Theology, Blue Ridge Institute for Theological Education, Quakertown Conference on Reformed Theology, International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310243.htm, http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310202.htm, http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310231.htm, Gregory of Nazianzus and Why Knowing the Nature of the Holy Spirit Really Matters. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, the Theologian, explains this progression in terms of the pedagogy of divine "condescension": ... 686 The Holy Spirit is at work with the Father and the Son from the beginning to the completion of the plan for our salvation. The Alliance is a coalition of pastors, scholars, and churchmen who hold the historic creeds and confessions of the Reformed faith and who proclaim biblical doctrine in order to foster a Reformed awakening in today's Church. Saints in heaven, friends on earth, both were proclaimed doctors of the Church in 1568 by Saint Pius V: because they shared their lives in Christ, the Church remembers on the same day Saint Basil the Great (c. 329-379) and Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (c. 329-390), who belong to the group of «Cappadocian Fathers», also including Basil's own brother, Saint Gregory of Nyssa. Basil the Great are two of the most distinguished doctors of the Church. To those who found these teachings unscriptural, he recommended a closer biblical examination. I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord Who was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit And born of the virgin Mary. During this time, Gregory, like Augustine, was consecrated priest against his will and with the acclamation of the people. Valens, as most emperors, wanted a united religion, and simple and popular were appealing attributes. Gregory senior and his wife Nonna had already another child, a girl named Gorgonia. Share 1. This is especially seen in an excerpt immediately following his reflection on the Godhead in terms of light. He works miracles; the Spirit accompanies them. While the Apostolic Fathers did not further this discussion much, it is only by the end of the second century that two … He insisted that the only distinctions that can be established between the three Persons of the Trinity are those which refer to the origin of each of them. Saints in heaven, friends on earth, both were proclaimed doctors of the Church in 1568 by Saint Pius V: because they shared their lives in Christ, the Church remembers on the same day Saint Basil the Great (c. 329-379) and Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (c. 329-390), who belong to the group of «Cappadocian Fathers», also including Basil's own brother, Saint Gregory of Nyssa. Theophany And The Invisible God In Early Christian Theology And Art. Basil the Great is of one of the Cappadocian Fathers, namely the famous fourth-century 3694 3694 Luke iv. Gregory’s troubles in Constantinople were not limited to the Easter eve attack. There, he was reunited with a friend he had met in Caesarea, Basil. In fact, his writings were so instrumental in bringing greater trinitarian clarity … Father reflects on their teachings on the incarnation and the divine motherhood of Mary. In Constantinople, a group of these invited Gregory to reorganize their church and lead them in converting the city to the Nicene theology. So, also, the Spirit's divinity was withheld until the Son's divinity was believed. Eventually, Maximus was expelled and Theodosius gave the title to Gregory. Today, many of us repeat the same formula as a simple convention. Leonardo da Vinci: Madonna of the Carnation, Alte Pinakothek, München. He and Basil of Caesarea, along with Basil's brother, Gregory of Nyssa, are known as the "Cappadocian Fathers." On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ. Terrified by the prospect of dying in a state of sin, he vowed to consecrate his life – if spared – to God. Both of his parents were made saints. Holy Water . Continuing to address the argument from silence, Nazianzus offered an explanation why the deity of the Holy Spirit was not expressly set forth in scripture. Share. Of these, Gregory of Nazianzus played a vital role in exploring the nature of the Spirit and in reaching a greater understanding of Christ’s nature and relationship with both the Father and the Spirit. Gregory of Nazianus on the Spirit. By that time, delaying the sacrament had become common practice. In my journey through reading Christian classics, I recently read Basil of Caesarea's On the Holy Spirit. A violent attack because of theology? Granted, this is difficult for our puny human brains to do, since we usually think of generation happening at some point in time… ‘The chicken generated an egg last week’ or something like that. In 381, Gregory presided the Council of Constantinople, but a lack of administrative skills forced him to abdicate. Basil during his studies in Alexandria where they were students. These are the transition from idolatry to the law and then from the law to the gospel. With no scarcity of details, he described Sasima as “a place without water, without vegetation, completely uncivilized, an utterly dreadful and cramped little settlement. They were not terrorists. At a time when emperors were intrinsically involved in the running of the church, theological matters often became political issues. In Gregory’s mind, the Holy Spirit must have equal status with the other godly members for "he is neither a creature, nor a thing made, nor a fellow servant, nor any of these lowly appellations" (Nazianzus, The Fifth Theological Oration - On The Spirit… He was baptized by his father when he returned to Nazianzus and led a holy life. Gregory of Nazianzus (330 – January 25 389 or 390) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. He also proclaimed the eternality of the Holy Spirit, saying that the Holy Spirit's actions were somewhat hidden in the Old Testament but much clearer since the ascension of Jesus into Heaven and the descent of the Holy Spirit at the feast of Pentecost. He studied rhetoric in Athens with his friend Basil … What of the Holy Spirit? In fact, he tells more about himself than any other Christian author before Augustine of Hippo. The Holy Spirit; The Trinity; Pastoral ministry. On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ. Gregory's most significant theological contributions arose from his defense of the doctrine of the Trinity. He met St. So you might be He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. Besides the spiritual responsibilities, which Gregory perceived in all their actual weight, he had to take on a greater load of practical tasks to assist his aging father, including the unpleasant duty of dealing with his brother’s creditors after Caesarius’s death of the plague in 368. 11 GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS'S ORATION 31 ON THE HOLY SPIRIT Pablo A7JJarate PNEUMATOLOGICAL EVOLUTION With the exception of some brilliant Johannine and Pauline passages, the rest of the New Testament provides only an incipient pneumatological reflec- tion. Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian, was born in 329 at Nazianzus in Cappadocia (modern day Turkey). His mother, Nonna, taught him the Scriptures and made certain that he received an extensive education. His greatest concern was that he had not been baptized. He states the Orthodox position thus, “If ever there was a time when the Father was not, then there was a time when the Son was not. He is called the Spirit of God, the Spirit of Christ, the Mind of Christ, the Spirit of The Lord, and Himself The Lord, the Spirit of Adoption, of Truth, of Liberty; the Spirit of Wisdom, of Understanding, of Counsel, of Might, of Knowledge, of Godliness, of the Fear of God. If ever there was a time when the Son was not, then there was a time when the Spirit was not. The Spirit is involved in the self-revelation of the Trinity. I cannot grasp the greatness of That One so as to attribute a greater greatness to the Rest. As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Trinitarian Theology In Early Christian Anaphoras. Like Augustine, he describes with touching honesty and powerful imagery his love for God, his passionate feelings for family and friends, his frequent disappointments, and his long-standing struggle between his necessary duties and his compelling desire to live an ascetic life. Gregory was the 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople and an eminent theologian of the early church. He descended to the dead. His father, also named Gregory, had recently been ordained as local bishop. Gregory of Nazianzus and Why Knowing the Nature of the Holy Spirit Really Matters Gregory of Nazianzus played a vital role in exploring the nature of the Spirit . God And The Poor In Early Christian Thought . His father, also named Gregory, served as a bishop of Nazianzus. They were followers of the doctrines of Arius, a previous priest who had opposed the notion of a fully divine Christ. Gregory of Nazianzus and Why Knowing the Nature of the Holy Spirit Really Matters. Earlier this summer I posted and discussed a passage on progressive revelation from Gregory of Nazianzus’ fifth ... who denied the deity of the Holy Spirit and alleged that it was unscriptural. Gregory of Nazianzus first challenges us to think about the Father’s generation of the Son in a ‘supra-temporal’ way. Gregory was very attached to her, and dedicated to her 36 of his epitaphs. PO Box 24087, RPO Josephine The article examines the nature of the dogmatics found in the poetry written by Gregory of Nazianzus (c. 329-390) through a particular case-study, the poem On the Son. The Holy Spirit. “Hunger, storm, and winds were competing to end our life,” he wrote about thirty years later. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-390 CE), "the Theologian," is the premier teacher on the Holy Trinity in Eastern Christian tradition, yet for over a century historians and theologians have largely neglected his work. Such then is the account of the Son, and in this manner He has escaped those who would stone Him, passing through the midst of them. It argues that Basil's work on the Spirit is less fully Trinitarian and ascetically weaker than that of the other two, that Gregory Nazianzen offers the most fully Trinitarian and methodologically insightful pneumatology of the three, and that the Holy Spirit plays only a minor role in Gregory of Nyssa's theological and ascetical system. Basil the Great "On the Holy Spirit" 1 Saint Basil the Great - His Life Together with St. Gregory of Nazianzus ("the Theologian," c. 329-389) and St. Gregory of Nyssa (c. 330-395), St. “No sooner do I conceive of the One than I am illumined by the Splendor of the Three; no sooner do I distinguish Them than I am carried back to the One. Gregory is drawing upon Origen’s Spirit-Letter dichotomy (166). Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. The Father is unbegotten, the Son is begotten, and the Holy Spirit proceeds. Tweet. For He is the Maker of all these, filling all with His Essence, containing all things, filling the world in His Essence, yet incapable of being comprehended in … The Fifth Theological Oration, On the Holy Spirit 97. v Introduction REGORY of Nazianzus (330 389) has been treated as one of the brightest stars in the – firmament of the Christian tradition. Gregory returned home where was finally baptized and began to help his father in his duties, all the while taking frequent trips to visit Basil. (Source: earlychurchtexts.com) I. Christ is born, glorify ye Him. “We were all in all to one other,”[2] he wrote, continuing with a passionate description of their friendship. It was not prudent to reveal the Son's divinity until the Father's divinity was confessed. Divine Semiotics And The Way To The Triune God In Augustine’S De Trinitate. He also would have much preferred to live in solitude and contemplation of God. 719 On Pentecost. God spared him, and Gregory arrived in Athens, where he stayed – still unbaptized – for more than ten years, while he studied under well-known teachers. Christ … Gregory of Nazianzus on the Trinity and the Knowledge of God: In Your Light We Shall See Light: Beeley, Christopher A.: 9780195313970: Books - Amazon.ca On the Holy Spirit. If the One … He saw his poetry as helpful both to himself and to others who might be having similar experiences. Gregory of Nazianzus (3301 – January 25 389 or 3901) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. Gregory of Nazianzus also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. Calling the Holy Spirit anything less than God only leaves us with further questions about our salvation. DC Field Value Language; dc.contributor.advisor: Widdicombe, Peter: en_US: dc.contributor.author: Opperwall, Daniel G. en_US: dc.date.accessioned: 2014-06-18T16:59:44Z In the Eastern Church, Holy Water is used frequently in rites of blessing and exorcism, and the water for baptism is always sanctified with a special blessing. Gregory, in his fifth oration, upholds the Deity and Personality of the Holy Spirit, with a particular emphasis on the Spirit’s relation in the Triune Godhead and His Eternal Procession. Posted on December 5 , 2012 by Catholicism Pure & Simple. Beeley, “The Holy Spirit in Gregory Nazianzen: The Pneumatology of Oration 31,” in God in Early Christian Thought: Essays in Memory of Lloyd G. Patterson, ed. I. The Orthodox name him “The Theologian” 1 – a title they accord only one other, St John the Apostle and Evangelist an– d honour him with two feast-days, January 25th and January 30th. Gregory accredited to her his father’s conversion from a small heretical sect. When I think of any One of the Three I think of Him as the Whole, and my eyes are filled, and the greater part of what I am thinking of escapes me. [5] Philip Schaff, Henry Wace, eds., A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, New York, The Christian Literature Company, 1894, 375. He was an opponent of Apollinaris and taught the complete humanity and the complete divinity of Jesus Christ. The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates his death on January 25. The Orthodox name him “The Theologian” 1 – a title they accord only one other, St John the Apostle and Evangelist an– d honour him with two feast-days, January 25th and January 30th. Written by Simonetta Carr | Saturday, February 10, 2018 . In 372, Basil was elected bishop of the large province of Caesarea, an appointment which displeased the Roman emperor Valens. He is especially noted for his contributions to the field of pneumatology—that is, theology concerning the nature of the Holy Spirit. The main reason, however, was that he didn’t feel “qualified to rule a flock or herd, or to have authority over the souls of men.”[3]. Holy Water is often sprinkled on items or people when they are blessed outside of the Church building, as part of the prayers of blessing. His mother died soon after that, and Gregory retired once again to a contemplative life. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, (born c. 330, Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, Asia Minor [now in Turkey]—died c. 389, Arianzus; Eastern feast day January 25 and 30; Western feast day January 2), 4th-century Church Father whose defense of the doctrine of the Trinity (God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) made him one of the greatest champions of orthodoxy against Arianism. She probably contributed to the education of her children. Man is called to worship the One who elevates … The Holy Spirit In Gregory Nazianzen: The Pneumatology Of Oration 31. He was a great defender of the Nicene Faith and played a leading role at the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople in 381. They proceed side by side, but in opposite directions: one moves from complexity to simplicity (vis-a-vis the worship of God), while the other moves from simplicity to complexity (vis-a-vis the knowledge of God). He returned a few months later, and apologized to his congregation, who forgave him slowly. Pope Benedict XVI. This chapter brings the argument to a focus by considering Gregory's doctrine of the Trinity as a whole, which is “theology” in the fullest sense. “Look at these facts: Christ is born; the Spirit is His Forerunner. When I contemplate the Three together, I see but one torch, and cannot divide or measure out the Undivided Light,”[5] he eloquently said. Adult Patristics Study - St. 4 But the Spirit is the last of the persons of the Holy Trinity to be revealed. On the Holy Spirit. Their writings were hugely influential in solidifying the doctrine of the Trinity leading up to the Council of… Refusing to fulfill his ordination, he stayed home, where he continued his previous duties until his father’s death in 374. Fundamental to St Gregory’s teaching on the Holy Spirit is its underlying soteriological focus. 29, 30. 28:19). “Despairing of everything here below I looked to you, my life, my breath, my light, my strength, my salvation, you who terrify and strike, smile and heal, ever entwining the good with its opposite. 688 Oration on the Holy Lights. He was born around the year 33 on the country estate of Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in the Roman province of Cappadocia (in today’s Turkey). Gregory has been called "the Theologian," "the Divine," and the "Christian Demosthenes." The Fifth Theological Oration, On the Holy Spirit 97. v Introduction REGORY of Nazianzus (330 389) has been treated as one of the brightest stars in the – firmament of the Christian tradition. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. To undermine Basil, Valens cut in half the territories under the bishop’s jurisdiction. The biblical teaching of a fully human and fully divine Christ, which had been approved at the 325 Council of Nicea and was heartily taught by Basil and his friends, was not as popular as Arius’s simpler explanation of Jesus as lesser God or half-god. 659 On the Arrival of the Egyptians. Ephrem’S Doctrine Of God. He is baptized; the Spirit bears witness. On the contrary the Holy Spirit is, to begin with, because of qualities that are essentially holy, that which the Father, essentially Holy, is; and such as the Only-begotten is, such is the Holy Spirit; then, again, He is so by virtue of life-giving, of imperishability, of unvariableness, of everlastingness, of justice, of wisdom, of rectitude, of sovereignty, of goodness, of power, of capacity to give all good things, and above them … This attack happened as the preacher, Gregory of Nazianzus, was about to baptize new converts. Since the Holy Spirit deifies and is not deifies, then he is God, full stop. To the followers of Arius, baptizing people in the name of three divine Persons who are equally God was a blasphemy, close to polytheism. Gregory is drawing upon Origen’s Spirit-Letter dichotomy (166). He was also a prolific poet who considered his poetic vocation as a work done for God’s glory. 11 GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS'S ORATION 31 ON THE HOLY SPIRIT Pablo A7JJarate PNEUMATOLOGICAL EVOLUTION With the exception of some brilliant Johannine and Pauline passages, the rest of the New Testament provides only an incipient pneumatological reflec- tion. In the Eastern Church, Holy Water is used frequently in rites of blessing and exorcism, and the water for baptism is always sanctified with a special blessing. Unlike Augustine, he literally ran away – back to Pontus. His cry to God, however, betrays the Scriptural knowledge which had been instilled in him since childhood. From the Catechism ... St. Gregory of Nazianzus explained this pedagogy of divine "condescension" when he wrote that the Father was revealed in the Old Testament and the Son in the New. St. Gregory was born in Cappodocia. On the vigil of Easter in 379, a group composed mostly of monks and women rushed into a church, attacked the congregants, wounded the preacher, and killed another bishop. St. Gregory of Nazianzen and St. In his sermons and lectures, he defended once again the divinity of Christ and introduced the Spirit as equal Person of the Trinity, explaining that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are all involved and engaged in every aspect of our salvation. He was born about 330 in Nazianzus in Cappadocia (now Turkey), the son of a local bishop. St Gregory the Theologian's Teaching on the Holy Spirit as the Basis of the World's Salvation, Pneumatology and Soteriology according to Gregory of Nazianzus & Cyril of Alexandria (Studia Patristica, 2013), The Holy Spirit as Agent, Not Activity: Origen's Argument with Modalism and its Afterlife in Didymus, Eunomius, and Gregory of Nazianzus. In this regard, Gregory is the first to use the idea of procession to describe the relationship between the Spirit and the Godhead: "The Holy Spirit is truly Spirit, coming forth from the Father indeed but not after the manner of the Son, for it is not by generation but by procession, since I m… [6] Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 31, 29, http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310231.htm. Calendar, Canadian Donors: 702 The Oration on Holy Baptism. He began by showing that the name which belongs to the Trinity fits the Holy Spirit, specifically, the true light that lights every one that comes into the world (John 1:9; 14:16). You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Of these, Gregory of Nazianzus played a vital role in exploring the nature of the Spirit and in reaching a greater understanding of Christ’s nature and relationship with both the Father and the Spirit. By the time Gregory was 13, the family had sufficient means to send him and Caesarius to study in Caesarea, Alexandria, and Athens. Gregory of Nazianzus, in his fifth Theological Oration, reinforces Basil’s conclusion. After Athens, Basil followed his plans by retiring with like-minded friends in the mountains near Neocesarea of Pontus. ), Gregory of Nazianzus: Autobiographical Poems (Cambridge Medieval Classics), Cambridge University Press, 2005, 23. 1 Shares “During this time, Gregory, like Augustine, was consecrated priest against his will and with the acclamation of the people. 670 On the Words of the Gospel, 'When Jesus Had Finished These Sayings,' Etc.--S. He was son -- one of three children-- of Gregory, Bishop of Nazianzus (329-374), in the south-west of Cappadocia, and of Nonna, a daughter of Christian parents. Along with many other theological works, both are known for their early and compelling arguments that the Holy Spirit is in fact God. Caesarius went on to Constantinople, where he became first doctor, then financial manager in the imperial court. With prayer as the anchor of his life, St. Gregory shows us that through any trials and difficulties, experiencing God's love always wins the day . St. Gregory of Nazianzus, (born c. 330, Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, Asia Minor [now in Turkey]—died c. 389, Arianzus; Eastern feast day January 25 and 30; Western feast day January 2), 4th-century Church Father whose defense of the doctrine of the Trinity (God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) made him one of the greatest champions of orthodoxy against Arianism. Category: Gregory of Nazianzus Reflections on the Creed (2): Jesus as a Man “I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth. Holy Water is often sprinkled on items or people when they are blessed outside of the Church building, as part of the prayers of blessing. St. Gregory of Nyssa (c 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. Gregory was a major political and intellectual figure during the pneumatological controversies of the late Fourth Century. Oratio, 38 (1 – 4, 13 – 18), delivered around Christmas in Constantinople in the year 380. Privacy Policy Andrew B. McGowan, Brian E. Daley, and Timothy J. Gaden (Leiden: Brill, 2009), 151–62; CrossRef Google Scholar. Gregory Nazianzus. J. In response, Basil doubled the number of bishops in his area, assigning Nyssa to his brother Gregory, and Sasima to Gregory of Nazianzus. [1] Gregory of Nazianzus, Caroline White (ed. They were not terrorists. The word Theophany (meaning manifestation of God) comes from the apostolic passage, “God was manifested in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen by angels, preached among the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up in glory” (1 Timothy 3:16). Gregory, then, appears to grant the point that the doctrine is not taught in Scripture and to formulate an argument for why it should be believed anyway. 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