Sharp, angular facial features. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. Cellulite. Metabolic excesses of the blood. Nervous system consumes many nutrients, minerals. Tends towards excessive sleep, somnolence. There were a variety of strands of medicine that came together at the crossroads of Islamic history that proved to be of tremendous significance for the birth of Islamic medicine and for Unani medicine in particular. Unani medicine is a health system, with its origins in Ancient Greece, but that is nowadays most popular in India. The particular usage of this term, however, has more often been an allusion describing the composite system of medicine born of the Arab world’s inheritance—within the larger framework of the Islamic spiritual universe—of the medical tradition of ancient Greece. Patient, devoted, faithful. Tends to be clear or pale and thick. Often pudgy, plump, or overweight; obesity common. Skin conditions, hypersensitivity, capillary congestion. He was the first person to identify and treat several common diseases, including whooping cough. A lot of sources treat "unani" as synonymous with Iranian Traditional Medicine. Poor tone of skin, muscles, and fascia. In 360 chapters, he summarized the various branches of medicine, devoting the last discourse, which consisted of 36 chapters alone, to a study of Indian medicine (Ayurveda). It usually goes something like “Well, it’s now up to the patient to heal” or “I’ve done all I can, the rest is up to the patient” or “I look forward to seeing you in 1 week in order to see how your hand is healing.” What do statements like this really mean? Craves sweets, dairy products, starchy glutinous foods. Colic, gas, distension, bloating common. Ayur Times is an initiative of his efforts to bring quality information on Indian Medicine with the highest level of relevancy and scientific evidence. Good natured, benevolent, kind. Along with the great medical traditions of other civilizations of the past, like the Ayurveda of Hindu India or Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani medicine continues to be preserved and persevere, especially in the face of modern cultural trends in many nations that have moved towards changing the old guards of ancient medicine for the shiny hopes and promises of a new system of powerful drugs, “healing steel,” and high-tech diagnostic tools and machinery. Sharp, fiery, brilliant, penetrating eyes and head. When balanced and healthy, can have a “cast iron stomach,” able to digest anything. Used with permission. This is also known in Islamic cosmologic language as al-wahdah fi ’l-kathrah wa ’l-kathrah fi ’l-wahdah (“the one in the many and the many in the one”). These translations established the foundations of a uniquely Arab medicine.”2, Ali ibn Rabbān al-Tabari was the teacher of the great Rhazes. Prominent veins, sinews, tendons. As simple as a paper cut is, it is usually followed by a natural biochemical and physiological inclination towards wound healing (homeostatic repair). He was reputed to be Islamic medicine’s greatest clinician. Apart from Unani medicine’s introduction onto the stage of world history as a legitimate synthesis—in time and space—of primarily Greek and Islamic civilizational influences, there is yet another dimension to Unani medicine that is often overlooked and yet of great significance. Light facial and body hair in men. “Each [Temperament] is named after a certain Humor, and is characterized by the predominance of that Humor and its associated basic qualities.”12 The classical temperaments correlate well to today’s psychological constitutional types: choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, and sanguine. The size, as well as the style of the work, places it between Avicenna’s Canon and Rhazes’ Continens. Along with the great medical traditions of other civilizations of the past, like the Ayurveda of Hindu India or Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani medicine continues to be preserved and persevere, especially in the face of modern cultural trends in many nations that have moved towards changing the old guards of ancient medicine for the shiny hopes and promises of a new system of powerful drugs, “healing steel,” and high-tech diagnostic tools and machinery. Liver and bile metabolism can be problematic. With the advent of the Islamic spiritual tradition, one must mention the intellectual power and genius found in the physicians of Islam. The traditional Tabīb (“man of medicine,” or physician) always has an eye to the Divine within the human temple. He was the “author of the first major work of Islamic medicine … entitled Kitāb Firdaws al-Hikma (‘The Book of the Paradise of Wisdom’). This system of medicine was introduced in India by the Arabs and it grew stronger when some scholars and physicians of Unani system fled to India after invasion of Persia by the Mongols. Water (mā’), which is cold and wet (bārid and ratab): determines the liquid state. Rather, the question is really one of proportions. Within the Islamic, as well other traditional religious worlds, knowledge has a definite hierarchical structure. What is the goal of all of creation? This is not to say that surgery and trauma care are perceived in a negative light in Unani medicine. One may perceive the Vis as being the thread that holds the fabric of the human body, mind, and soul together in close conjunction with the spirit. Romantically inclined; loves beauty, aesthetics, arts. Unani medicine bases its medical theories of diagnosis and treatment upon this specific understanding of the intradependent relationships that exist between the four humors as it concerns the subtle (latīf) aspects of human physiology and spiritual psychology. Unani medicine also shares medical theories, philosophies, cultural identity, and spiritual insights regarding human health and disease with ancient systems of medicine, such as Hindu India’s Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, because its knowledge and wisdom hail from the traditional Eastern “Orient,” while contrasting tremendously with the single system of contemporary medicine that one could say belongs to the world of the modern Western “Occident.”* This is what led Hakim Chishti (an American researcher and practitioner of the science and art of Unani medicine) to present a very thoughtfully indexed comparison between all of these healing systems (as found on http:/www.unani.com whose general points are in Table 49-1). He has successfully treated thousands of patients with Ayurveda (including Herbal Ayurvedic Medicine and Ayurvedic Diet). Expansive, generous. Unani medicine also shares medical theories, philosophies, cultural identity, and spiritual insights regarding human health and disease with ancient systems of medicine, such as Hindu India’s Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, because its knowledge and wisdom hail from the traditional Eastern “Orient,” while contrasting tremendously with the single system of contemporary medicine that one could say belongs to the world of the modern Western “Occident.”, Comparing the Three Great Traditional Healing Systems with Modern Western Medicine, Contributions and Influences from Antiquity. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were the major centuries in which Islamic medicine spread into India and came to be known as al-Tibb al-Yunānī (Unani medicine). Sensitive, sentimental, emotional, empathetic. From the traditional view, the human being is seen as the most concentrated theophany (i.e., a locus of Divine Presence in the world of forms), especially as it concerns the qualities of an active intellect and free will. Hypothyroid, myxedema. Practical, pragmatic, realistic. First, there was the synthesis of the ancient sciences (including medicine), of Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations in Greek life and thought, centered in Alexandria. Color dark, brunette. elements within each specific form. Difficulty falling asleep, insomnia. Can also be thin, fine. Efficient, realistic, pragmatic. Unani medicine, also called Yunani medicine or Unani-Tibb, is a system of alternative medicine first developed by Islamic physician Avicenna in about 1025 CE. Unani is a part of Tibb e Nabuvi. He was also original in this medical arena in inventing and manufacturing the requisite surgical instrumentation that did not exist, or existed previously in very crude form only, to conduct operations as painlessly and effectively as possible. Learn More: Unani Medicine (Tibb-E Unani). Arthritis, rheumatism, neuromuscular disorders. Bold, courageous, audacious, confrontational, contentious. Can be moody, depressed, withdrawn. How many times have we heard what surgeons say after surgery? Double chin, pug nose common. Phlegm congestion. Alternative Titles: Arabian medicine, Islamic medicine, Unani tibb Unani medicine, also called Unani tibb, Arabian medicine, or Islamic medicine, a traditional system of healing and health maintenance observed in South Asia. An active, sportive type. This is the general medical theory of the “healing power of nature” that Unani medicine posits as a guiding principle upon which is built more complex specific understandings of human health and disease. You can read my answer to a similar question for details: answer to What are the uses of Unani medicine? Ideation faculty well-developed. Snoring common; can be loud or excessive. In youth, balanced, neither too fat nor too thin. FOOD AS MEDICINE In common with many traditional sources of medicine, Unani-Tibb emphasizes the use of flavors and tastes to adjust the imbalances which contribute to disease. Strong innate heat of metabolism. Thyroid tends to be challenged, stressed. Can be overwhelmed by excessive food. For millennia, people have healed with herbal or animal-derived remedies, using knowledge handed down through generations. Unani physicians usually practice usage of a single drug and poly-pharmaceutical preparations. The basic cosmologic premise in Islam, as well as in other traditions such as Hinduism, Christianity, and Judaism, is that the Absolute Truth of Divinity (al-Haqq) manifests Itself in the world of forms and within the human heart in a process called the “arc of descent.”‡ There is in response to this arc of descent of the Divine a reciprocal “arc of ascent” of the human spirit.10 These adwār (“arcs” or “cycles”) of descent and ascent relate directly to the interdependence of all things on all levels of existence. Veins not prominent, but can be bluish and visible. Can be nervous, high strung. The basic knowledge of Unani medicine as a healing system was collected by Hakin Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna) in 980 ce in Persia. Read More. Poor circulation and immunity. Accessed April 23, 2012. Blood tends to be thick. The Unani System of Medicine originated in Unani in Greece. Cool, clammy sweat common, especially on hands and feet. Metaphysical and Philosophical Foundations. Facial and body hair in men tends to be sparse. Unani medicine bases its medical theories of diagnosis and treatment upon this specific understanding of the intradependent relationships that exist between the four humors as it concerns the subtle (latīf) aspects of human physiology and spiritual psychology.*. Quite hearty, often greater than digestive capacity. The literary sources of Unani medicine (al-tibb al-yunānī, or sometimes referred to simply as “Tibb,” or “Hikmat” in Pakistan and Afghanistan) were Arabic translations of ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Arabic, Persian, Indian, and Chinese medical texts. Following this is the knowledge found in Revelation (i.e., a perfect dispensation from Heaven that enlightens the human intellect).† As this revelatory knowledge sparks the heart’s depths, it necessarily begins to involve the mind–intellect in its quest for knowledge of this earthly domain (‘ilm al-dunya), this physical world. Therefore, any decision made by a hakīm must include an analysis of risks-to-benefits within the larger ethical framework of the Divine’s presence in human life. Often curly. Conserves energy, favors anabolic metabolism. Weight gain, obesity. The Unani System of Medicine originated in Unani in Greece. Since then, this system of medicine has made a firm footing in India and is recognized by the Indian government for clinical practice and research funding. Soubani’s “The Discovery of the Pulmonary Circulation Revisited,” in which this medical doctor and researcher pooled together and summarized a host of earlier literature regarding this hallmark of medical subjects.4,7, Abu al-Qāsim al-Zahrāwī (976-1013 AD) is considered to be the greatest surgical figure in Islamic medicine. Thin lips. Sensitive to cold weather; suffers greatly in winter. Exuberant, enthusiastic, outgoing. It is well recognized by contemporary historians that the ancient Greek—and to some extent Roman—intellectual heritage of the West would have been almost totally lost were it not for the integrating and synthesizing Arab genius within the Islamic world.1 In this regard, one must marvel at the Arabs’ level of care and precision in “first collecting, then translating, then augmenting, and finally codifying the classical Greco-Roman heritage that Europe had lost.”2 However, “so many people in the West wrongly believe that Islam acted simply as a bridge over which ideas of Antiquity passed to mediaeval Europe. High cholesterol, cardiovascular disorders. Prone to anger, impatience, irritability; short temper. It is at the level of the subtle body that the hakīm desires to enliven the self-healing power, the vital force, or the vis medicatrix naturae to affect a change in the patient’s being in the direction of health and wellness. Well-formed, but tends to be slightly loose, soft. It is this particular “organizing principle” (al-quwwa al-mudabbirah), as a component of the hidden physiology of the subtle body, that affects a harmonizing reaction in the face of “disease” or illness. “Each [Temperament] is named after a certain Humor, and is characterized by the predominance of that Humor and its associated basic qualities.”, www.greekmedicine.net/. Anorexia, poor appetite. Tendency towards gastritis, hyperacidity, acid reflux. Nervous stress can increase sweating. Spain and Morocco: Al-Zahrāwī (Albucasis) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Abu al-Walīd Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rushd, The Eastern Lands of Islam, Persia, and India: Al-Jurjāni, Nurbakhski, and Dara Shukūh, Isma‘īl Sharaf al-Dīn al-Jurjāni followed Avicenna by one generation, producing the most important medical encyclopedia in the Persian language, the, Muhammad Husayni Nurbakhski was a physician of fifthteenth century Safavid, Persia, who wrote a large medical work entitled. Dizziness, vertigo, ringing in ears. Prone to dehydration. Good muscle tone and definition. Adrenals, sympathetic nervous system dominant. Digestive secretions strong, bowel transit time short. The Canon quickly was, for several hundreds of years, the standard medical textbook of the Islamic, medieval Christian, and later Indo-Pakistani worlds. Water and aquatic themes common. Bleeding disorders from excess heat, choler in the blood. Respiratory catarrh, congestion, asthma. The Arabic term unānī derives from the word “Ionian,” which is a general adjective signifying “things-Greek.” The linguistic translations and transliterations of this word took place between the Greek, Arab, and Persian civilizations. It is the world’s ancient science of health care and healing, works … Nutritional deficiencies can cause a craving for sweets, starches. Malaysia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, South Africa, and certain sectors of the Middle East [such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Dubai]). Sharp nose, high cheekbones. Can be subtle, thin, furtive, indicating poor immunity. The studies of Papyri clearly show the ability of Egyptians in the field of medicine. Frequent colds and flu. Knobby, prominent bones and joints common. Chronic respiratory conditions, congestion. Moderate, balanced. In 360 chapters, he summarized the various branches of medicine, devoting the last discourse, which consisted of 36 chapters alone, to a study of Indian medicine (Ayurveda). Ayn al-Mulk al-Shirāzī was responsible, at least in large part, in composing The Medicine of Dara Shukūh, which is the last great medical encyclopedia written in the world of Islam. Passive, slow, sluggish; averse to exertion or exercise. It is a noble profession of healing the suffering body or soul. However, because the language of modern conventional medicine does not give this ever-present healing power a name, it is vicariously mentioned under ambiguous terms, phrases, and allusions. It is an alternative medicine that is based on the teachings of Hippocrates. What does Unani mean? The short answer is: Yes, Unani medicines are effective. Dramatic, bombastic manner; high powered personality. Gingivitis. The choices of foods and the manner in which they are prepared are considered to be among the most important issues to consider when choosing a diet to improve or maintain health. Pink, rosy, blushing complexion. This encouraged two other civilizations to take up the reins of transmission of essential elements of Greek knowledge: Persian and Harrānian (i.e., Sabaean). Earth (ardh), which is cold and dry (bārid and yābis): determines the solid state. No part of this web site may be reproduced by any means without the prior written consent of the American Institute of Unani Medicine. Uremia, gout, diabetes, high cholesterol. Bold, daring, original, imaginative, visionary. Unani medicine has become purely indigenous to India and though it lost its tempo during the British rule, has become widely used in India again, especially among the vast Muslim population. Swollen legs, ankles, feet. According to the Hermetic dictum, “As Above, so too below,” the human being acts as a mirror to the Divine. Variable to poor. Such as Habb (Pills), Qurs (Tablets), Shyaaf (suppository), Safoof (Powder), Nafookh (Insuflation), Majoon (Confection), Lauq (Linctus), Usara (Juice), Marham (ointment), Sharbat (syrup), Roghan (oil), Khameera, Jawarish, Itrifal etc. Adrenal hypofunction. Abu al-Walīd Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rushd9 (1126-1198 AD) was born in Cordoba, where he trained in law and philosophy, although he made his living as a physician. Optimistic, confident, poised, graceful. They also initiated surgery as a method of treatment. Great faith, patience, devotion; tends to be religious, spiritual. The Unani system makes use of plants, minerals and animal products as curative agents to re-establish the person’s original humoral constitution. It is well recognized by contemporary historians that the ancient Greek—and to some extent Roman—intellectual heritage of the West would have been almost totally lost were it not for the integrating and synthesizing Arab genius within the Islamic world. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. Good to moderate; balanced. Also, it was in the city of Jundishapur that the Persians vivified the sciences coming out of India and China. Usually pleasant, of a charming, amusing, romantic nature. There have been several studies in recent years that incontestably demonstrated that Ibn Nafīs discovered the lesser circulation of the blood before Servetus. The idea man who prefers to leave the details to others. An optimistic, positive mental outlook. Cold, wet, and slow. The true and original meaning of the word “philosophy” as “philo-sophia” (love of wisdom) has only accidental affinities to what is termed philosophy in the modern lexicon today. Dreams of fire, red things common. Why should the body even mobilize these mechanisms to begin with? Secondly, the main centers of Greco-Hellenistic learning were pushed further East as a result of a decline of intellectual energies due to shifting political and economic realities constantly confronting and fracturing Western Christendom. Furthermore, Unani medicine historically had the opportunity, capacity, and satisfaction of embracing the numerous folk medicines that existed within the borderlands of the Islamic world, from the traditional use of herbal remedies in ancient Palestine to the folkloric ore-based therapeutics of the people living on the high plateaus of the Himalayan Hindu-Kush mountains. Hyperacidity, acid reflux, inflammatory and ulcerative conditions of middle GI tract. Fevers, infections, inflammation. medicine of their day with their own contributions. Unani medicine originates from Greece and it means “Greek Medicine.” Unani medicine is founded on the teachings of Hippocrates who was a Greek physician. In Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East, 70-95 per cent of the population still use traditional medicine (TM) for primary… Hypertension, stress. We usually never see a paper cut to a finger progressively develop into an open wound, fester with pus and infection, turn gangrenous or necrotic, die, and then have the finger be amputated; this is simply not the natural instinctual response of the human body. A Personal Thought on the Invisible Vis or Quwwa, Unani Medicine: Greco-Arabic Healing and the Islamic Genius. Nervous, colicky digestive disorders. Hakim Ajmal Khan (1868-1927 AD) pioneered research in Unani Medicine with modern scientific parameters in the 1920s. * This hierarchy maintains the essential links that exist between Heaven and Earth, between God and humans. Generally a light sleeper. It is this understanding of the nature of things that permits traditional Hakīms (the “doctors” of the Unani medical tradition) to find solace in the fact that every patient is ultimately a patient at the doorsteps of the Divine Doctor. Serious, averse to gambling and risk taking. Intestinal sluggishness, putrefaction. Balding common in men. Hippocrates formed the theoretical framework of Unani Medicine after he freed the concepts of health from the realms of magic and superstition and gave it the status of science. Bowel tone can be a bit lax. This is really a cultivated virtue that the hakīms practice as part of their art to remain true to the doctrine that “God is everywhere present”; that in keeping with the wisdom of Plato, it is the “eye of the soul” that witnesses “tō Agathōn” (“the Supreme Good”). Avicenna is perceived by some to be the “Father of Unani Medicine,” and his, Ibn Nafīs was born in Damascus and died in Cairo in the twelfth century. “Likewise, the burning fire that we see is not the element fire, which is really the potentiality of fire within the substance.”, The interplay between the qualities of the elements leads ultimately to a uniform configuration of a temperament. There are hosts of medical systems around the world with their own understanding of what constitutes the primary and basic functional components that cause health to reign or disease to take root, progress, and finally show itself in constellations of signs and symptoms of illness. Both the amount and quality of food are taken into consideration. Water retention, edema. Unani medicine is a holistic system of treatment which fully treats persons suffering from his mental and physical ailments rather than just the symptoms. In Unani medicine, these concepts fall under the strict heading of umūr al-tabīiyyah (“principles of natural physiology”), comprised of the “Seven Naturals” that are the pillars and determinants of health. Unani medicine is based on the ‘humoral theory’ (relating to four bodily fluids) with each humor leading to a specific temperament in a human being. A predilection for rich gourmet foods. Unani Medicine: Comparisons and Contrasts with Other Health Care Systems. Often fitful, restless, disturbed, especially with stress, indigestion. A synthetic intellect that likes to see the whole picture. Lymphatic congestion, obstruction. There is yet another common example that relies heavily on the signaling of this “power” or “quwwa” for healing, and that is surgery. Can easily get stuck in a rut. Soft, creamy smooth, luxurious feel. Imbalances of temperaments cause disharmony, especially on the mental and emotional fronts. Tends to be scanty, dark, thin. Fond of meat, fried foods, salty or spicy foods, alcohol, intense or stimulating taste sensations. Avicenna is perceived by some to be the “Father of Unani Medicine,” and his Canon its gospel.2, Ibn Nafīs was born in Damascus and died in Cairo in the twelfth century AD. His literary corpus includes, It is from this remarkable polymath that Unani medicine draws its breath of life. Can gain weight in later years, mainly around midriff. Feet and ankles often puffy, swollen. The Arabs immersed themselves in the medical knowledge and wisdom contained in the writings of Hippocrates (Buqarāt) and Galen (Jālinūs). There is an obvious analogy to the profound knowledge found in that sacred oriental symbol of the Tao’s Tai Chi (“Supreme Principle of Unity”) with the complimenting and harmonizing forces of Yin and Yang. Themes of grief or loss common. Frugal, austere; can be too attached to material possessions. Fight or flight, confrontation. Muhammad Husayni Nurbakhski was a physician of fifthteenth century Safavid, Persia, who wrote a large medical work entitled The Quintessence of Experience. Fatty liver, bilious conditions. Round face; full cheeks, often dimpled. No ques-tion exists, however, that the primary textual sources were of … Greek medicine, greatly simplified for presentation here, was based on the concept of balancing body humors. In summary, the “scientific knowledge that originated in India, China, and the Hellenistic world was sought out by Arab and Muslim scholars and then translated, refined, synthesized, and augmented at different centers of learning, starting at Jundishapur in Persia around the sixth century—even before the coming of Islam—and then moving to Baghdad, Ali ibn Rabbān al-Tabari was the teacher of the great Rhazes. Rib cage long and narrow, with ribs often prominent. Delicate, well-formed mouth and lips. in Unani medicine and in the various cultures of the Middle East and Asia is the black seed ( al-habba al-sauda or al-habba al-barakah), the seed of grace or blessed seed. Often tends to wake up early or in the middle of the night. In Chinese medicine, we have physiologic concepts such as Qi, Blood, Yin, and Yang. Broad chest common. Unani medicine’s philosophical underpinnings are tied to the Islamic spiritual tradition. Unani medicine is still practiced today as an organic, living, breathing, whole system of health care helping millions of people around the world (especially in the Indian subcontinent, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Persia [Iran], China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, South Africa, and certain sectors of the Middle East [such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Dubai]). Everything in creation is perceived as acknowledging, in one form or another, the all-pervading Divine Presence. Very deep and sound. He was reputed to be Islamic medicine’s greatest clinician. Disclaimer: Information provided on this website is not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease. His works include, Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn ‘abd Allāh ibn Sīna was born in the city of Bukhāra in what is today Uzbekistan. Generally dark, moody, somber, disturbing. 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