Homados to Hystaspes 2. History and Origin Hieronymus, pronounced /haɪˈrɒnɪməs/ or /həˈrɒnɪməs/, is the Greek and Latin form of the given name Jerome and means "sacred name." He seems to have spent two years there, then left, and for the next three (382–385) he was in Rome again, as secretary to Pope Damasus I and the leading Roman Christians. “Christ is the image (Greek, ikon) of the invisible God” ... Hieronymus. Once more he defended the ordinary practices of piety and his own ascetic ethics in 406 against the Gallic presbyter Vigilantius, who opposed the cultus of martyrs and relics, the vow of poverty, and clerical celibacy. But again, as soon as you found yourself cautiously moving forward, the black night closed around and there came to my mind the line of Virgil, "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent". Set of twelve miniature figurines depicting Greek Roman Gods and Goddesses. Site development and maintenance by Messagenet Communications Research. His study is often shown as large and well-provided for, he is often clean-shaven and well-dressed, and a cardinal's hat may appear. On the departure of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, from Sicily in 276, the Syracusans appointed Hieron commander of the troops, and he strengthened his position by marrying the daughter of Leptines, the … Jerome's commentaries fall into three groups: Jerome is also known as a historian. But finding that his eyes were growing dim, and that his whole body was shrivelled with an eruption and a sort of stony roughness (impetigine et pumicea quad scabredine) he added oil to his former food, and up to the sixty-third year of his life followed this temperate course, tasting neither fruit nor pulse, nor anything whatsoever besides. (This Bonosus may or may not have been the same Bonosus whom Jerome identifies as his friend who went to live as a hermit on an island in the Adriatic.) Jerome is the second most voluminous writer (after Augustine of Hippo) in ancient Latin Christianity. Hieronymus Bosch was an Early Netherlandish painter. Doublet of Jerome. 70, Ad Magnum de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis; and Ep. 53, Ad Paulinum de studio scripturarum; Ep. ", Jerome, To Paulinus, Epistle 58 (A.D. 395), in NPNF2, VI:119.: "Do not, my dearest brother, estimate my worth by the number of my years. [28] His Preface to The Books of Samuel and Kings[29] includes the following statement, commonly called the Helmeted Preface: This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a "helmeted" introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew into Latin, so that we may be assured that what is not found in our list must be placed amongst the Apocryphal writings. The resulting inclination of these women towards the monastic life, away from the indulgent lasciviousness in Rome, and his unsparing criticism of the secular clergy of Rome, brought a growing hostility against him among the Roman clergy and their supporters. Coin depicting Hieronymus of Syracuse. Bibliography Information. Related terms . Seized with a desire for a life of ascetic penance, Jerome went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southeast of Antioch, known as the "Syrian Thebaid" from the number of eremites inhabiting it. For example, in Jerome's letter to Eustochium he quotes Sirach 13:2;[30] elsewhere Jerome also refers to Baruch, the Story of Susannah and Wisdom as scripture.[31][32][33]. Our venerable and God-bearing father Jerome was noted as a scholar of Latin at the time when Greek was considered the language of scholarship. Of considerable importance as well is the De viris illustribus, which was written at Bethlehem in 392, the title and arrangement of which are borrowed from Suetonius. The subject of "Jerome Penitent" first appears in the later 15th century in Italy; he is usually in the desert, wearing ragged clothes, and often naked above the waist. His Commentary on Daniel was expressly written to offset the criticisms of Porphyry,[42] who taught that Daniel related entirely to the time of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and was written by an unknown individual living in the second century BC. He knew some Hebrew when he started his translation project, but moved to Jerusalem to strengthen his grip on Jewish scripture commentary. [51], It was Jerome's strict asceticism that made Martin Luther judge him so severely. John was an eyewitness of the reported occurrences though, as he himself writes ( John 1:14 ; John 19:35 ). PN# 8679. [19] Jerome translated parts of this Hebrew Gospel into Greek.[20]. n Eusebius . $663.00. [49][50], Jerome showed more zeal and interest in the ascetic ideal than in abstract speculation. W. H. Fremantle, "Prolegomena to Jerome", V. Eremantle, note on Jerome's commentary on Daniel, in NPAF, 2d series, Vol. Because there was no distinct line between personal documents and those meant for publication, we frequently find in his letters both confidential messages and treatises meant for others besides the one to whom he was writing.[36]. [47] Alexander is the great horn, which is then succeeded by Alexander's half brother Philip and three of his generals. Be it Orthodox or Latin, context is still the proper way to understand Scripture. It contains short biographical and literary notes on 135 Christian authors, from Saint Peter down to Jerome himself. Cut and paste the following html for use in a web report. He made his first attempt to learn Hebrew under the guidance of a converted Jew; and he seems to have been in correspondence with Jewish Christians in Antioch. During Jerome's life, cardinals did not exist. The Assassination of Hieronymus, Soon afterward, he went to Constantinople to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen. Jerome's decision to use a Hebrew text instead of the previous-translated Septuagint went against the advice of most other Christians, including Augustine, who thought the Septuagint inspired. Around this time he had copied for him a Hebrew Gospel, of which fragments are preserved in his notes. This sudden flurry of literary activity has been dubbed the western "Renaissance of Paul." [34], Jerome's letters or epistles, both by the great variety of their subjects and by their qualities of style, form an important portion of his literary remains. [7], Additionally, Jerome's condemnation of Blaesilla's hedonistic lifestyle in Rome had led her to adopt ascetic practices, but it affected her health and worsened her physical weakness to the point that she died just four months after starting to follow his instructions; much of the Roman populace were outraged at Jerome for causing the premature death of such a lively young woman, and his insistence to Paula that Blaesilla should not be mourned, and complaints that her grief was excessive, were seen as heartless, polarising Roman opinion against him.[22]. 52, Ad Nepotianum de vita clericorum et monachorum, a sort of epitome of pastoral theology from the ascetic standpoint; Ep. In many cases, he focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life. Perseus Project, "Loose Canons: The Development of the Old Testament (Part 2)", "St. Jerome: Patron Saint of Librarians | Luther College Library and Information Services", Jimmy Akin, "Is the Vulgate the Catholic Church’s Official Bible?" A historian of the third century BCE; none of his work survives and we know of him only through later writers who mentioned and quoted his work. It is recorded that Jerome died near Bethlehem on 30 September 420. [58] Writing materials and the trumpet of final judgment are also part of his iconography. For the first seventy-eight authors Eusebius (Historia ecclesiastica) is the main source; in the second section, beginning with Arnobius and Lactantius, he includes a good deal of independent information, especially as to Western writers. Thank you!Greek Mythology > People, Places, & Things > Hieronymus, H to Helike ... where the Sacred Name probably became a euphemism for the name of God). In Greek mythology, Sisyphus was punished for his self-aggrandizing deceitfulness by being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill in the underworld, only to watch it roll back down, repeating his action for eternity. 6, p. 500. Same argument made by the Latins. ...After they have been slain, the seven other kings also will bow their necks to the victor. Behind him on the wall is pinned an admonition, Cogita Mori ("Think upon death"). The whole country between the Alps and the Pyrenees, between the Rhine and the Ocean, has been laid waste by hordes of Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Allemanni, and—alas! Later, as a result of his writings against Pelagianism, a body of excited partisans broke into the monastic buildings, set them on fire, attacked the inmates and killed a deacon, forcing Jerome to seek safety in a neighboring fortress in 416. Hieroglyphics to Holy Twain "a figment" found in the thirteenth-century. Two letters to Pope Damasus (15 and 16) complain of the conduct of both parties at Antioch, the Meletians and Paulinians, who had tried to draw him into their controversy over the application of the terms ousia and hypostasis to the Trinity. During the sojourns at Antioch and Constantinople he was mainly occupied with the Arian controversy, and especially with the schisms centering around Meletius of Antioch and Lucifer Calaritanus. The more strictly polemical writings cover every period of his life. The society valorized heroic warriors and made offerings to a pantheon of gods. [14] Here and there the light, not entering in through windows, but filtering down from above through shafts, relieved the horror of the darkness. "[43], Jerome identified the four prophetic kingdoms symbolized in Daniel 2 as the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Medes and Persians, Macedon, and Rome. ), neu hrsg. Greek Gods and Goddesses Miniature Set of 12 Figurine Statues 3.5H. Jerome (/dʒəˈroʊm/; Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Greek: Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 342-347 – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Latin priest, confessor, theologian, and historian; he is commonly known as Saint Jerome. Instead, he advocated that the "little horn" was the Antichrist: We should therefore concur with the traditional interpretation of all the commentators of the Christian Church, that at the end of the world, when the Roman Empire is to be destroyed, there shall be ten kings who will partition the Roman world amongst themselves. Saint Jerome in his study, c. 1530 by Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Workshop, Walters Art Museum, Saint Jerome and the Paulines painted by Gabriel Thaller in the St. Jerome Church in Štrigova, Međimurje County, northern Croatia (18th century). [8] His feast day is 30 September. Further reminders of the vanitas motif of the passage of time and the imminence of death are the image of the Last Judgment visible in the saint's Bible, the candle and the hourglass.[57]. He expected that at the end of the world, Rome would be destroyed, and partitioned among ten kingdoms before the little horn appeared.[46]. He began in 382 by correcting the existing Latin-language version of the New Testament, commonly referred to as the Vetus Latina. [43], In his Commentary on Daniel, he noted, "Let us not follow the opinion of some commentators and suppose him to be either the Devil or some demon, but rather, one of the human race, in whom Satan will wholly take up his residence in bodily form. His remains, originally buried at Bethlehem, are said to have been later transferred to the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, though other places in the West claim some relics, the cathedral at Nepi boasting possession of his head, which, according to another tradition, is in the Escorial. At the same time or a little later (379) he composed his Liber Contra Luciferianos, in which he cleverly uses the dialogue form to combat the tenets of that faction, particularly their rejection of baptism by heretics. Western Art Deco Bronze Greek mythology Satyr Sheep god Women girl Man Sculpture. [39] He believed that "the mystery of iniquity" written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 was already in action when "every one chatters about his views. Jerome warned that those substituting false interpretations for the actual meaning of Scripture belonged to the "synagogue of the Antichrist". “Gossart, Italy, and the National Gallery's Saint Jerome Penitent.” Report and Studies in the History of Art, vol. For other uses, see, 4th and 5th-century Catholic priest, theologian, and saint, Latin Church, also known as the 'Western Church', the largest, Megan Hale Williams, The Monk and the Book: Jerome and the Making of Christian Scholarship, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006), In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is known as, "(...) die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang (...) [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (...) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." [citation needed], Jerome was a scholar at a time when that statement implied a fluency in Greek. St. Jerome, born Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος) in Stridon, Dalmatia circa 347, is best known for making the Bible accessible to the masses. Only 1 left. Herzog, Sadja. The oldest Greek versions (Septuagint), from the third century B.C., consistently use Κύριος, “Lord,” where the Hebrew has Jhvh, corresponding to the substitution of Adonay for Jhvh in reading the original; in books written in Greek in this period (e.g. He was not baptized until about 360–369 in Rome, where he had gone with his friend Bonosus of Sardica to pursue rhetorical and philosophical studies. This article is about the priest and Bible translator. Men Lifting Bird with Blue Egg by Hieronymus Bosch Fantasy Surrealism Weird Art. Jerome’s Latin name was Eusebius Hieronymus; he was born in Stridon, in the Roman province of Dalmatia. He is either shown in his study, surrounded by books and the equipment of a scholar, or in a rocky desert, or in a setting that combines both aspects, with him studying a book under the shelter of a rock-face or cave mouth. Jerome spent some time in Nitria, admiring the disciplined community life of the numerous inhabitants of that "city of the Lord", but detecting even there "concealed serpents", i.e., the influence of Origen of Alexandria. Regular price $835.00 USD $835.00 USD. A typical painting of Hell from Bosch usually consisted of houses molded from flesh, continued torture … From Latin Hierōnymus, from Ancient Greek Ἱερώνυμος (Hierṓnumos, “ holy name ”). Aglaea and her five sisters were all Greek healthcare goddesses. [55], From the late Middle Ages, depictions of Jerome in a wider setting became popular. 3, 1969, pp. ... 6 Reminders of Who God Is from the Book of Exodus Lianna Davis Even the translation of the treatise of Didymus the Blind on the Holy Spirit into Latin (begun in Rome 384, completed at Bethlehem) shows an apologetic tendency against the Arians and Pneumatomachoi. PN# TAL751_13AS-1. [3][4][5] He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (the translation that became known as the Vulgate) and his commentaries on the Gospels. Hieronymus Dream is a talented new band from Greece who just released their debut EP called Clairvoyance. [24] He completed this work by 405. [citation needed]. By 390 he turned to translating the Hebrew Bible from the original Hebrew, having previously translated portions from the Septuagint which came from Alexandria. [43] The he-goat is Greece smiting Persia. The tendency to recognize a superior comes out in his correspondence with Augustine (cf. During one of these illnesses (about the winter of 373–374), he had a vision that led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to God. "People, Places & Things: Hieronymus", Greek Mythology: From the Iliad to the Fall of the Last Tyrant. He also updated the Psalter containing the Book of Psalms then in use in Rome, based on the Septuagint. Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, entrusted him with the governorship of Boeotia. Helikon to Hexa 14, Ad Heliodorum de laude vitae solitariae; Ep. The so-called Martyrologium Hieronymianum is spurious; it was apparently composed by a Western monk toward the end of the 6th or beginning of the 7th century, with reference to an expression of Jerome's in the opening chapter of the Vita Malchi, where he speaks of intending to write a history of the saints and martyrs from the apostolic times. Hieronymus synonyms, Hieronymus pronunciation, Hieronymus translation, English dictionary definition of Hieronymus. Mortal, Asclepiadae. [13][better source needed] To appease his conscience, on Sundays he visited the sepulchers of the martyrs and the Apostles in the catacombs. One of his earliest historical works was his Chronicon, composed c. 380 in Constantinople; this is a translation into Latin of the chronological tables which compose the second part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a supplement covering the period from 325 to 379. 57, to the same, De institutione monachi; Ep. Each one is off white with painted gold details. The last of his polemical works is the skilfully composed Dialogus contra Pelagianos (415). Gray hairs are not wisdom; it is wisdom which is as good as gray hairs at least that is what Solomon says: ', Jerome, To Oceanus, Epistle 77:4 (A.D. 399), in NPNF2, VI:159.:"I would cite the words of the psalmist: 'the sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,’ [Ps 51:17] and those of Ezekiel 'I prefer the repentance of a sinner rather than his death,’ [Ez 18:23] and those of, Jerome, Letter 51, 6, 7, NPNF2, VI:87-8: "For in the book of Wisdom, which is inscribed with his name, Solomon says: '. The pilgrims, joined by Bishop Paulinus of Antioch, visited Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and the holy places of Galilee, and then went to Egypt, the home of the great heroes of the ascetic life. Jerome was born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. A Greek historian born at Cardia in Thrace; he fought under Alexander the Great, and after his death attached himself to his compatriot Eumenes. in, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Letters of Jerome Dataset – corpus as structured data, with sender, receiver, and letter-type classification, The Life of St. Jerome, Priest, Confessor and Doctor of the Church, Further reading of depictions of Saint Jerome in art, Chronological list of Jerome's Works with modern editions and translations cited, Lewis E 82 Vitae patrum (Lives of the Fathers) at OPenn, English translations of Biblical Prefaces, Commentary on Daniel, Chronicle, and Letter 120 (tertullian.org), Translations of various works (letters, biblical prefaces, life of St. Hilarion, others), Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, Conference of the Latin Bishops of the Arab Regions, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jerome&oldid=998029692, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Articles needing additional references from August 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, His translations or recastings of Greek predecessors, including fourteen homilies on the. He is noted for his exceptional physical strength and the twelve labors he completed after which he was made a god. However, by the time of the Renaissance and the Baroque it was common practice for a secretary to the pope to be a cardinal (as Jerome had effectively been to Damasus), and so this was reflected in artistic interpretations. Jerome is also often depicted with a lion, in reference to the popular hagiographical belief that Jerome had tamed a lion in the wilderness by healing its paw. He warned a noble woman of Gaul: He that letteth is taken out of the way, and yet we do not realize that Antichrist is near. Nevertheless, his writings show outstanding scholarship and his correspondence is historically of great importance. Jerome studied under the grammarian Aelius Donatus. To these last 34 years of his career belong the most important of his works; his version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text, the best of his scriptural commentaries; his catalogue of Christian authors; and the dialogue against the Pelagians, the literary perfection of which even an opponent recognized. Asclepius and Epione: Asteria: Greek goddess of nocturnal oracles and falling stars. Prior to Jerome's Vulgate, all Latin translations of the Old Testament were based on the Septuagint, not the Hebrew. This translation, the Vulgate, became the official biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church. A documentary series dedicated to Elders Hieronymus Simonopetritis, Joseph the Hesychast and the blessed Elder Ephraim of Philotheou and Arizona, provided with permission for usage to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, was produced by White Fox, S.A., Athens Greece. Hieron II, Hieron also spelled Hiero, (died 216/215 bce ), tyrant and then king of Syracuse, Sicily, from about 270 to 216/215 bce, who struggled against the Mamertini and eventually allied his city with Rome. http://messagenetcommresearch.com/myths/ppt/Hieronymus_1.html, Stewart, Michael. Hieronymus (Christianity) Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, Saint Jerome. A wealthy Roman aristocrat, Paula, funded his stay in a monastery in Bethlehem and he completed his translation there. [44] Jerome identified the stone cut out without hands as "namely, the Lord and Savior". In the Catholic Church, he is recognized as the patron saint of translators, librarians and encyclopedists. [48], He acquired a knowledge of Hebrew by studying with a Jew who converted to Christianity. Notable persons with that given name include: Hieronymus Carl Friedrich von Münchhausen, famous recounter of tall tales, fictionalized as Baron Munchausen (1720–1797) Jerome is especially known for his translation of the Bible. Return to Hieronymus in the Dictionary In his Vulgate's prologues, he describes some portions of books in the Septuagint that were not found in the Hebrew as being non-canonical (he called them apocrypha);[27] for Baruch, he mentions by name in his Prologue to Jeremiah and notes that it is neither read nor held among the Hebrews, but does not explicitly call it apocryphal or "not in the canon". Note this entire site has moved to http://messagenetcommresearch.com. Asteria is a popular name in Greek The following passage, taken from Saint Jerome's "Life of St. Hilarion" which was written about A.D. 392, appears to be the earliest account of the etiology, symptoms and cure of severe vitamin A deficiency:[34], From his thirty-first to his thirty-fifth year he had for food six ounces of barley bread, and vegetables slightly cooked without oil. Practically all of Jerome's productions in the field of dogma have a more or less vehemently polemical character, and are directed against assailants of the orthodox doctrines. With its mixture of krautrock, psychedelic rock, and a few post-rock influences, these 4 instrumental songs will bring you on a great journey across the valleys and seas of your inner cosmic mind. 316, but Hieronymus found favour with Artigonus and was appointed governor of Syria. He must have lived in two worlds simultaneously – the real one and the world of his imagination. Home • Essays • People, Places & Things • The ImmortalsGreek Myths Bookshop • Fun Fact Quiz • Search/Browse • Links • About, Original content Copyright 1996–2005 Michael Stewart. In fact, Protestant readers are not generally inclined to accept his writings as authoritative. Amply provided for by Paula with the means of livelihood and for increasing his collection of books, Jerome led a life of incessant activity in literary production. Yes, Antichrist is near whom the Lord Jesus Christ "shall consume with the spirit of his mouth." Website design and structure Copyright 2005 Michael Wiik Some of these accompanied Jerome when in about 373 he set out on a journey through Thrace and Asia Minor into northern Syria. Many modern scholars believe that the Greek Hexapla is the main source for Jerome's "iuxta Hebraeos" (i.e. Coeus and Phoebe. Page 197: "In his discussion he gives clear evidence of having consulted the Hebrew himself, providing details about the Hebrew that could not have been learned from the Greek translations. The letters most frequently reprinted or referred to are of a hortatory nature, such as Ep. In later Greek literature, including Homer's The Iliad and The Odyssey, the exploits of these warriors and gods engaged in the Trojan War had become legendary and, in fact, appropriated by later Greeks as their founding myths. Free shipping. As a prominent member of the Roman clergy, he has often been portrayed anachronistically in the garb of a cardinal. Jerome; Translations In the 16th century Saint Jerome in his study by Pieter Coecke van Aelst and workshop, the saint is depicted with a skull. "[40] To Jerome, the power restraining this mystery of iniquity was the Roman Empire, but as it fell this restraining force was removed. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff, Michael Graves, Jerome's Hebrew Philology: A Study Based on his Commentary on Jeremiah, Brill, 2007: 196–198. There he learned Latin and at least some Greek,[11] though he probably did not yet acquire the familiarity with Greek literature that he later claimed to have acquired as a schoolboy.[12]. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families.[7]. Ruth Ann Hieronymus July 4, 1934 - Dec. 16, 2020 ATLANTA - Ruth Ann Hieronymus, 86, of Atlanta, passed away Wednesday, Dec. 16, 2020, at Memorial Medical … This experience reminded him of the terrors of hell: Often I would find myself entering those crypts, deep dug in the earth, with their walls on either side lined with the bodies of the dead, where everything was so dark that almost it seemed as though the Psalmist's words were fulfilled, Let them go down quick into Hell. 67-70, Learn how and when to remove this template message, artists often depict him in a "wilderness", P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid Theodore C. Williams, Ed. Titaness, second generation. Jerome held that chapter eight describes the activity of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is understood as a "type" of a future antichrist; 11:24 onwards applies primarily to a future antichrist but was partially fulfilled by Antiochus. 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