However 35 minutes after the earthquake the most devastating tsunami experienced until then in modern Japan hit the coast, one of the subsequent waves reached a height of over 30-38 meters. Matsuo ( 1933) made field … The coastal town sits at the mouth of Onagawa Bay and was badly affected by the 2011 tsunami, which killed about an eighth of the town's population and destroyed more than half of the town's buildings. In some places the tsunami’s wave reached a height of 125 feet. Minamisanriku relies heavily on tourism and commercial fishing as mainstays of the local economy. Since the schools were all on high ground, many children were orphaned. The tsunami heights from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami were measured 37 years after the event, based on eyewitness accounts. The clinic included surgical, pediatrics and maternity wards, and an intensive care unit, pharmacy and laboratory along with 62 tons of medical supplies. Immediate aftermath accounts suggested 95 percent of the town was destroyed by the 2011 Japanese tsunami that followed the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. [22], When the earthquake struck, the mayor, Jin Sato (佐藤仁), was talking at the town assembly about the much smaller tsunami caused by the March 9 foreshock of the March 11 earthquake. Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis. The historical records of maximum run‐up are 38.2 m in the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami and … In the latter method, we dipped the test pit and observed the soil layer of the side wall minutely to find the sand layer being supposed to be carried by the tsunami from the dune. Issue 4 Moreover to analyze the character of the sand layer, we made the physical examination, the chemical analysis and the measurement of the age by 14C method. Tourists can freely tour the school. In the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the maximum run‐up height was 39.7 m at Miyako, which resulted in catastrophic destruction of towns and cities in the ria coast area. Minamisanriku has five public elementary schools and two public middle schools operated by the town government and one public high school operated by the Miyagi Prefectural Board of Education. Finally we checked it with the social and geographic circumstances at that time, and we got the result that the estimated height is not inconsistent with the record of this tsunami. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19: 32 local The 1994 o In Hawaii, wharves were … The often quoted maximum height of 38 m at … [2], Minamisanriku is in the far northeastern corner of Miyagi Prefecture. Japan's massive tsunami on March 11 reached heights of up to 131 feet (40 meters), according to the latest data from Japan's Meteorological Agency. Keywords:tsunami height, “Japan Tsunami Trace database”, historical tsunami, Jogan tsunami, Jogan tsunami, Keicho Oushu (Sanriku) tsunami, Iwate Prefecture Iwate Prefecture is advancing examination for future tsunami hazard based on scientific knowledge such as historical records and tsunami … The Tsunami at Sanriku, Japan, 1896 It just no longer exists. Later, the waves of the Tsunami enveloped the entire city as the water of Lake Biwa rose, leaving no trace of the place, except for the castle situated there. [20] Survivors wrote "SOS" in white lettering,[21] in the playing field of Shizugawa High School. The 1960 Chilean tsunami struck the Sanriku coast with a height of several meters approximately 23 h after the earthquake (e.g., Committee for Field Investigation of the Chilean Tsunami of 1960, 1961), resulting in 123 casualties in the Tohoku region. Tourists can freely tour the school. From the results of these investigations, the height of the Sanriku Jogan 11 earthquake-tsunami (A. D. 869) is estimated as 2.5-3m at the point 3km from the coastline in the Sendai Plain. To understand its source mechanism, an examination was undertaken of the seismotectonics of the region and of the earthquake’ focal … From the results of these investigations, the height of the Sanriku Jogan 11 earthquake-tsunami (A. D. 869) is estimated as 2.5-3m at the point 3km from the coastline in the Sendai Plain. There were around 7,000 of us on the hill that day. Japanese tsunami stood at 132.5ft . The 1960 Valdivia earthquake triggered a tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean and struck the town of Shizugawa with a height of up to 2.8 metres (9.2 ft),[7] causing extensive damage. She was credited with saving many lives. 2nd ser. It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. Twenty-six thousand people were killed and nine thousand homes destroyed. 1896, 1933, and 1960 (Fig. Characteristics of Sanriku tsunamis. The maximum tsunami height was 24 m at Yoshihama. SANRIKU EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN George Pararas-Carayannis Tsunami Society International, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA drgeorgepc@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The great Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a very destructive and anomalously high tsunami. The tsunami heights along the northern and central Sanriku coasts from both earthquakes were similar, but the tsunami waveforms at regional distances in Japan were much larger in 2011. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most devastating tsunami earthquakes, which generated an anomalously larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. The area has suffered from the effects of tsunami since ancient times, including the 869 Sanriku earthquake, and more recently during the 1896 Sanriku earthquake and the 1933 Sanriku earthquake. Per Japanese census data,[5] the population of Minamisanriku peaked in the 1950s and has declined steadily over the past 70 years. [3], Minamisanriku has a humid climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) characterized by warm humid summers and cold winters. TSUNAMI SOCIETY. 3b). 45, Takahama (Bottom) - Tsunami by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. The area of present-day Minamisanriku was part of ancient Mutsu Province and came under the control of the Date clan of Sendai Domain during the Edo period, under the Tokugawa shogunate. The historical records of maximum run‐up are 38.2 m in the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami and 28.7 m in the 1933 Showa Sanriku Tsunami . which the height of the 2011 tsunami was recorded at 296 points, along with descriptions of the survey method, reliability, and accuracy. In Hawaii, wharves were demolished and several houses were swept away. Among those great tsunamis, the field investigation had been rarely carried out about the tsunami of July 13th, 869 (11th year of the Jogan Era) because of the lack of the materials of old documents. To mark the 30th anniversary of the disaster in 1990, a bilingual Spanish-Japanese plaque was installed, with a message from President Patricio Aylwin of Chile, accompanied by a replica moai statue. It was quite a different story with the 1933 event. Huge damage was inflicted by this earthquake and Tsunami which may have claimed as many as 8,000 lives back then. Shizukugawa was elevated to town status on October 31, 1895 and Utatsu on April 1, 1959. The town had two evacuation centers where residents could go in the event of a tsunami, one on the southern headland overlooking the town, the other back from the center of the town. [28] A 53-member delegation of medical personnel from the Home Front Command and the IDF's Medical Corps opened a field hospital near Minamisanriku on March 29. The tsunami was reported at Shirahama to have reached a height of 38.2 m, causing damage to more than 11,000 homes and killing some 22,000 people. The tsunami, which was generated by an earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan, attained a height of 25 meters (80 feet), and instantly swept away all houses and people when it reached land. Magnitude of Max Recorded Mean Standard Number of Earthquake Height, H, m Log H Deviation Log H observed stations Meiji Sanriku (1896) 8.5 (Mw) 38.2 0.881 0.309 132 Showa Sanriku (1933) 8.4 (Mw) 28.7 0.711 0.285 205 Tohoku-oki … We then compared them with the above-mentioned tsunamis at locations for which specific measurements were given in previous reports. The 1896 earthquake resulted in the highest tsunami wave ever recorded in Japan at 38.2 metres (125.3 ft), until it was surpassed by a 40.4 metres (132.5 ft) wave at Miyako in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[6]. The town was formed through a merger on October 1, 2005, when the towns of Shizugawa and Utatsu, both from Motoyoshi District, merged to form the new town of Minamisanriku. [1] The total area of the town is 163.40 square kilometres (63.09 sq mi). ), Estimation of the Height of the Sanriku Jogan 11 Earthquake-Tsunami (A. D. 869) in the Sendai Plain, Edited and published by : The Seismological Society of Japan, https://doi.org/10.4294/zisin1948.43.4_513. Keywords: Paleo-tsunami, Sanriku coast, Japan, Tsunami deposit identification, AD 869 Jogan tsunami, Storm wave, Numerical modeling Introduction The Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) and tsunami that struck on March 11, 2011, generated severe damage along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. The 1896 tsunami height was reported as 130–180 shaku (approximately 39–55 m; Yamana 1896), 72 feet (22 m; Iki 1897), or 38 m (Matsuo 1933) (Fig. Everything in its path was totally devastated. The Memorial Museum was built on the site of that high school to retain the state of the damage at that time. Close to 200 people were rescued from the roof. Onagawa (女川) is a small fishing town along the Sanriku Coast known for its bountiful seafood like oysters, scallops, pacific saury and salmon. The 2011 Japan tsunami current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR Hermann M. Fritz,1 David A. Phillips,2 Akio Okayasu,3 Takenori Shimozono,3 Haijiang Liu,4 Fahad Mohammed,1 Vassilis Skanavis,5 Costas E. Synolakis,5,6 and Tomoyuki Takahashi7 Received 17 December 2011; accepted 20 December 2011; published 21January2012. All the others have gone." He returned to government affairs, founding the headquarters for disaster control at the Bayside Arena in Miyagi on March 13, 2011. The tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. The tsunami, which was generated by an earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan, attained a height of 25 meters (80 feet), and instantly swept away all houses and people when it reached land. Zisin (Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan), Zisin (Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan. Tsunami were also observed as far away as Hawaii and in California. The Memorial Museum was built on the site of that high school to retain the state of the damage at that time. We estimated the inundated area from the result of the survey for the 8 points in the Sendai Plain. Volume 43 10. The average annual temperature in Mutsu is 11.1 °C. At times the tsunami’s wave reached a height of 125 feet. This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2 metres (125 ft) from the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake. [10], The 2010 Chile earthquake caused a 1.3-metre (4.3 ft) tsunami in Minamisanriku.[11]. In the aftermath of the disaster, Endo was missing and was later confirmed to have died. The H for the 1999 Vanuatu earthquake recorded at two coastal tide gauges, Moroto‐misaki (0.15 m) and Tosashimizu (0.14 m) (Figure 1), are approximately twice as … The height of the wave was described as being several meters. The clinic was active in treating patients immediately upon opening. Tsunami height: 24 – 39ft; Fatalities: 1,711; The city of Sendai is nestled between the Ou Mountains and a densely populated coastal plain that extends southward to Fukushima Prefecture. Matsuo reported tsunami heights from the 1896 and 1933 Sanriku tsunami based on surveys he conducted during March 3–10 and May 19–June 4, 1933, with the support of the Iwate and Miyagi prefectural governments. [8] As a result, two-story-high harbor walls were built by 1963, and residents held tsunami drills each year on the anniversary. East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Kesennuma Line (Suspended indefinitely and replace by a BRT service), Location of Minamisanriku in Miyagi Prefecture, "Shizugawa Hospital, Minamisanriku-cho, Miyagi", "9,500 still unaccounted in Minamisanriku of Japan's Miyagi Prefecture: Kyodo", "Rescuers scramble to save lives as aftershocks jolt Japan", 9,500 People Reported Missing in Small Town Following Japan Quake, Natures fury leaves a silt-covered graveyard, Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "Detailed Analysis of the 2011 Japan Tsunami – Video Footage, Wave Heights and Damage Imagery", Minamisanriku: Japan's tsunami-hit ground zero, "Japan tsunami: Minamisanriku, a fishing port that vanished", "Minami Sanriku - the town that disappeared in the Japan earthquake", "Miki Endo, missing heroine of Minamisanriku", "Israel first to set up field hospital in Japan", "IDF field hospital officially open doors to Japanese", "IDF medical delegation to Japan treats homeless baby", "Gillard tours tsunami-devastated Minami Sanriku", Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minamisanriku&oldid=998263987, Articles with Japanese-language sources (ja), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 77 Shioiri, Shizugawa, Minamisanriku-cho, Motoyoshi-gun Miyagi-ken 986-0792, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 15:41. The town is bordered to the north, west, and south by the Kitakami Mountains. An approximately 13-meter high tsunami hit a building at Kesennuma Koyo High School. About 70% of the area of the town is forested. Minamisanriku (南三陸町, Minamisanriku-chō) is a town in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The villages of Shizukugawa and Utatsu were established on June 1, 1889 with the establishment of the modern municipalities system. The third biggest was the 2004 tsunami triggered by the mega earthquake in Sumatra, Indonesia, which hit Asia. Perhaps a few thousand at the school on the hill opposite. The tsunami destroyed over 7,000 homes along the northern Japanese coastline, of which over 4,885 were washed away. [23], Shizugawa Hospital was one of the few major buildings that survived the tsunami. The Sanriku area extends northward from Sendai, passing through Iwate to Aomori as a saw-toothed coastline more than 600 km in length. [16] In late June 2011, a total of 1,206 were counted as dead or missing, according to the Kahoku Shinpou. [23] The three-story building of the town's Crisis Management Department (防災対策庁舎, Bōsai Taisaku Chōsha) which Sato escaped to was submerged by the tsunami. SCIENCE OF TSUNAMI HAZARDS International Journal of Tsunami Society. Kesennuma suffered a major tsunami damage in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. We carried out the field investigation of the height of this tsunami in the Sendai Plain on the basis of the archaeological view and the sedimentologic examination. Everything in its path was totally devastated. For three bays situated along the Sanriku Coast, Japan, comparison of the water heights attained by the Chile tsunami of 1960 with those by the Sanriku tsunami of 1933 is made, and a remarkable difference is found between them. Maximum tsunami height of 38,2 m from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami shown on a pole near the border of Okubo and Shirahama, Sanrikucho-Ryori, Ofunato City, Iwate Prefecture.jpg 1,941 × 1,460; 296 KB Minamisoma City - Map of Triple Disaster 2011.png 3,417 × 3,399; 8.9 MB Although both were 20 meters above sea level, the tsunami inundated them and washed people away. Out of the 130 people who worked at the town hall, Sato was one of 53 who reached the roof and one of 10 who survived. It is a resort town on a coastline of wooded islands and mountainous inlets; large sections of which suffered from damage due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Maximum tsunami height (m) 2011 Tohoku 1960 Chile 1933 Showa 1896 Meiji 1611 Keicho Figure 1 Historical tsunamis in the Sanriku area, the areas that were affected by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, and the maximum tsunami height of historical tsunamis 994 A. Suppasri et al. [24], Miki Endo, a 25-year-old employed by the town's Crisis Management Department to voice disaster advisories and warnings, was hailed in the Japanese news media as a heroine for sacrificing her life by continuing to broadcast warnings and alerts over the community loudspeaker system, in the Crisis Management Department's building, as the tsunami overwhelmed it. [18] The average height of the tsunami in Minamisanriku was around 45 feet (14 m) above the sea-level, with the highest watermark recorded at 67.3 feet (20.5 m) just southwest of the city center. Its coastline is part of the Sanriku Fukkō National Park, which stretches north to Aomori Prefecture. [26][27], The town is the site of the first field hospital established by an outside nation offering assistance following the disaster. [29][30], On 23 April 2011, the Prime Minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, visited Minamisanriku.[31]. 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