Fly ash Fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda Ash Plant, Khewra. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) Fly ash fineness—The percent retained on the 45 µm (No. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables) shall not be considered as requirements of this standard. Harvested Fly Ash Reliable, high-quality fly ash supply for concrete production FLYASH.COM ... AASHTO Limit Class F/C Fineness, % retained on 45-μm sieve 24.72% 34 max 34 max Strength Activity Index - 7 or 28 day requirement 7 day, % of control 90% 75 min 75 min 311 As shown in Fig. Fineness Gradation(min), m2/kg: He indicated that as a result of the report, the design engineers changed the concrete pavement specification to require 25%-35% Type F or N fly ash (or 40%-50% ground granulated blast-furnace slag) in all concrete for pavements, and they anticipate … <> ���_����4YS��\��X�����:��8J���:�ϛ[��=��˲9���?�}�j� 3�4��,�/$y_���%��" {��e���\�J�U����敧�pf2�~��Æ N����IH @����=���N���JɅ�*e�8��=�~��nh;���/�G��3@�I:���c%"� ۚ�0�%�Z��,?D8Z\�� �|�� #�Jm�dF�B�����|s���U�ݐ��DS�6��YQ�J�B��V�����Ƞ"T�p����dBՅʌ���������勏��7?g+��l�����^��34�Mɩ�L[�:n���e���f\yru]�2�����e���ӎ�w+Y����0���B�ەί+C?��c6����ê���>��n��.����*�V|����oV�ȳ��VU�9{ �?n�Ʃ�wvNG˥G�զ$j�BX���mkW�W:�p���������0�a����5�y���nua`v&���l�?c��-�ܮ�|ׯD��{�J��!��ݚ�y�����_���� E���UC �>���9I]T"��"�� Q%��'�W� it is a siliceous or aluminous material that when mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound. Coarse fly ash was fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm. 4.1.2 Chemical Tests—The chemical component determinations and the limits placed on each do not predict the performance of a fly ash or natural pozzolan with hydraulic cement in concrete, but collectively help describe composition and uniformity of the material. Standard - IS 4031 (Part 15) 1991 , ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997, EN 451-2:1994 . Similar behaviour was noted for material from single sources classified to different fractions, or … 2. stream 11.2 All tests for the properties of the fly ash shall be carried out at the fineness at which it is supplied for use by the purchaser. Historically, fly ash has been used in concrete at levels ranging from 15% to 25% by mass of the cementitious material component.The actual amount used varies widely depending on the application, the properties of the fly ash, specification limits, and the geographic location and climate. Class-F fly ash having specific gravity 2.10 and dark brown color is used. ). ULTRA FINE ASH. 27 – 30 Water requirement. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the Fineness of Fly Ash using 45micron sieve as recommended in various international standards. endobj The mixture proportions of recycled aggregate concretes were first prepared using 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and then river sand was replaced with recycled fine aggregate at 0, 50, and 100% by weight of the fine aggregate (river sand plus recycled fine aggregate). INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS POZZOCRETE ASTM. ��[�;�>B� ���>�u�B��nU]��2����_���5�,�U�n2�x'���c ,��$�Z��i����d���� �Ȱø�� �����������=����s�ܨB4��{\x��?2W �л�50�a�1 S��D��d�l%ʒ��>�s|$j.�!V�"��n25�=;r�ӝo�>?��5 u�ѻnzt���lA]U�t:Z�&Yt��L�y�]�%�y�Z����?�T�?�]�L���9*�����U��VWU\D扏����:�e��Iw(��W��"u�w�↋PU�6*M(�R��������*�����#×�(�԰�#�%��EkIM�Q3�~�qe[�L4��h�_�}�v(�����m��z��k� RQ���]�8������Y��>f8��O��&�&yO�%f[���9ᜢQ,�I�Ѥ�S$��ή�;�5�����L�o�ݚ��=�B2to����_�� 42�;>�w"�g"BJ��9zҟ�N����[ The OPF70’s lime content combined with its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated. Replacement of the Fly Ash is limited to 35% maximum and it provides more benefits than its inherent disadvantages. 3.7 Pond Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed in any proportion and conveyed in the form of water slurry and deposited in pond or lagoon. x��\[o�F�~7���� �Y�ú�H�8�dƃ$��6�g(5�����Zr��k�ߞK]�$�`A�&Y�S��s�*�����_����7�e�7�d�~w����-�5�Wg�ۗ/*���0JeU�3)�*��/_������?^fYԎ��� It observed that the fineness of fly ash was the most s ignif ca tp a rm e fu c the uitab ity of y ash for applications in concrete. Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. establish whether these could rapidly assess wet stored fly ash reactivity, directly, or following processing. The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. %���� Fly ash (also known as a coal combustion product [CCP]) is the finely divided mineral Mineral residue resulting from the combustion of powdered coal in thermal power stations. 31 Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions. ՠp � ! Fly-Ash is a pozzolanic material i.e. 3 0 obj TESTS 11.1 The sample or samples of fly ash for test shall be taken as described in 80 and shall be tested in accordance with IS : 1727-1967t. At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. View. Fineness. These test methods are based on standardized testing in the laboratory and are not intended to simulate job conditions. The number of bags in a sample shall be as given below: Batch Size … %PDF-1.5 4.1 These test methods are used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of Specification C618 or Specification C1697. For dry fly ash, this is normally carried out until achieving a difference in results of 0.3%. 24 Air-entrainment of mortar. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 11. FLY ASH(%) 59.3 23.4 4.8 8.6 0.6 0.1 - 3.2 - The Fig:3 shows about the chemical properties present in and fly ash in concrete. TEST METHODS The test methods used included fineness, by 45 µm wet sieve, following EN 451-2 [16]. Although attempting maximum fly ash utilization is helpful from various perspectives, there is 1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information. Super plasticizer Chemrite-530 used as super plasticizer because it is high range water <>>> The specific gravity of fly ash ranges from a low value of 1.90 for sub-bituminous ash to a high value of 2.96 for iron-rich bituminous ash. The materials shall be tested for fineness, strength activity index, water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction. The 45µm sieve residues of the five samples were 40%, 41%, 48%, 63% and 88% with water requirements of 97%, 112%, 93%, 98% and 107%, respectively. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. 200) sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. endobj 25 and 26 Strength activity index with portland cement. Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. 21 – 23 Soundness. At the same time, suppose fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical. For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more … This study used high fineness of fly ash as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate concrete properties. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens), C114 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement, C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates, C150/C150M Specification for Portland Cement, C151/C151M Test Method for Autoclave Expansion of Hydraulic Cement, C157/C157M Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete, C185 Test Method for Air Content of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C188 Test Method for Density of Hydraulic Cement, C204 Test Methods for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air-Permeability Apparatus, C219 Terminology Relating to Hydraulic Cement, C226 Specification for Air-Entraining Additions for Use in the Manufacture of Air-Entraining Hydraulic Cement, C227 Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method), C430 Test Method for Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by the 45-m (No. OPF70, LA Ash’s CFB fly ash brand is a product of coke combustion.OPF70 is unmodified circulating fluidized bed combustion deposit consisting primarily of calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4). 9.49, it was found that there was a gradual reduction in strength with increasing fly ash coarseness and the effect was greatest in concrete with reducing w/c ratio. The physical properties of fly ash are, 1. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA) have become an interesting alternative to disposal. Fly ash and natural pozzolans shall conform to the prescribed chemical composition requirements and physical requirements. Fineness of Fly Ash. Physical Requirements of fly ha perBIS ishown in T l -1 d ASTM own in T ble- 2. C109/C109M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. 11.2 Tolerance Requirements for the Quantity of Fly Ash Packed in Bags 11.2.1The average of net quantity of fly ash packed in bags at the plant in a sample shall be equal to or more than 15 kg, 30 kg, 300 kg, 600 kg as applicable. The challenge is to obtain two representative 1 … The alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard sieve size. Among the forty-nine fly ashes tested, only five samples failed the fineness requirements of ASTM C 618. Fly-Ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Visit Copyright Clearance Center, Historical Version(s) - view previous versions of standard, Work Item(s) - proposed revisions of this standard, More C09.24 Standards 200) sieve. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 4.1.1 Strength Activity Index—The test for strength activity index is used to determine whether fly ash or natural pozzolan results in an acceptable level of strength development when used with hydraulic cement in concrete. FINENESS TESTING OF FLY ASH. The properties the Fly ash was obtained from the source, from where it is obtained and shown in Table 3. Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 8112 (BIS, 1989) was used as a binder. Higher levels (30% to 50%) have been used in massive struc- Gradation: The AASHTO specification limits for mineral filler call for a range of from 70 to 100 percent passing the 0.075 mm (No. Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick. As the fineness … 1.2 The procedures appear in the following order: Silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sulfur trioxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide, Increase of drying shrinkage of mortar bars, Strength activity index with portland cement, Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions, Effectiveness of Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolan in Contributing to Sulfate Resistance. 3.8 Mound Ash — Fly ash or bottom ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or carried dry form and deposited dry. 20 Increase of drying shrinkage of mortar bars. The effects of fly ash fineness covering the EN 450-1 range (up to 40% retained on a 45-μm sieve) have been investigated in concrete. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Since the test is performed with mortar, the results may not provide a direct correlation of how the fly ash or natural pozzolan will contribute to strength in concrete. As per ASTM, the fineness of the fly ash is to be checked in both dry n wet sieving. 1 0 obj IS C618 (Lower limit) (Upper Limit) 3812. Keywords: Fly ash fineness, Fly ash in concrete, utilization of fly ash, fly ash from ESP. 4 0 obj a given fly ash “f” as equivalent to the mass of cement “kf” and it is used to make w/(c+kf) ratio instead of w/c ratio. �$5Z�r �. Size and Shape of Fly Ash As the fly ash is a very fine material, the particle size ranges between 10 to 100 microns. FINE ASH. Standard References. Seventy-five percent of the fly ash must have a fineness of 45 µm or less, and have a carbon content, measured by the loss on ignition (LOI), of less than 4%. BSEN450. Mostly, it is observed that it increase the duration for gaining the strength whereas it reduces the heat of hydration of cement considerably when higher grades of concrete are being used. The sio 2 (silicon dioxide) is more in fly ash and low in GGBS. 1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. Further fineness is also measured by LeChatelier method and Blaine Specific For example, a typical 500-MW coal unit firing 8% ash content fuel will be passing about 40,000 pounds of fly ash per hour. endobj Note 1: Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. 1.1 These test methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash and raw or calcined pozzolans for use in portland-cement concrete. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. The fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated. The CaO (Calcium oxide) more in GGBS and low in fly ash.Al2O 3 (Aluminum oxide ) present more in fly ash and low in GGBS, it shows there is a Fly ash used as a cement replacement must meet strict construction standards, but no standard environmental regulations have been established in the United States. Differences in test details, using the wet sieve residue or 45 micrometer sieve, particularly in sieve correction factor, cause significant differences in reported results. ��� /���˿�W�2�Oh% Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits. <> In the US, LOI must be under 6%. ... a = strength of cement/fly ash mixture, replacement level X, time t ... – Confirmed the limits of 0.1% expansion @ 14 days for ASTM C1567 as being a good correlation to ASTM C1293 The fineness of the fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete. It depends upon several factors, such as fly ash percentage, age of concrete, water-binder ratio, fineness of fly ash,… etc. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA) is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. Related Products 2 0 obj Fly ash specification requirements Limits Loss on ignition <3% Combined content of SiO 2, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 ≥70% Moisture <1% (on-line feed) SO 3 ≤5% ... needs to be present in the fly ash. Other Differences – Fineness (45 microns) Other Differences – Alkali. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Standards Products, Active Standard ASTM C311 / C311M | Developed by Subcommittee: C09.24, Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center   To explore the effect of fly ash fineness, a wide range of fly ash fineness from 4125 cm 2 /g to 9632 cm 2 /g is chosen. Fineness is the primary physical characteristic of fly ash that relates to pozzolanic activity. Fineness Testing Apparatus (Wet Sieving type) for Fly Ash temperature monitoring facility (AIM 392) Ref. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. 325) Sieve, C441/C441M Test Method for Effectiveness of Pozzolans or Ground Blast-Furnace Slag in Preventing Excessive Expansion of Concrete Due to the Alkali-Silica Reaction, C604 Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Gas-Comparison Pycnometer, C618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials, C1012/C1012M Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution, C1437 Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C1697 Specification for Blended Supplementary Cementitious Materials, D1426 Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water, D4326 Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence, E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves, ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products), ASTM C311 / C311M-18, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland-Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org, Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification. 325) sieve shall not exceed XX% (more restrictive than ASTM C618) The [available] alkali content of fly ash shall not exceed X.X% In an NRMCA review of more than 100 specifications Fly ash has also been used as embankment and mine fill, and it has i… Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. View 0 peer reviews of Effect of fly ash fineness on compressive strength and pore size of blended cement paste on Publons COVID-19 : add an open review or score for a COVID-19 paper now to ensure the latest research gets the extra scrutiny it needs. One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement. 4 EXTRACTION OF FLY ASH 4.1 Fly ash may be extracted from flue gases of ground For fineness, fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant, Khewra - is 4031 Part. Any, associated with its use cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement ICI Soda. Will always route to the current Active version of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its particle. Water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction combustion into a glassy, structure... Always route to the current Active version of the referenced standard 3892Part1, 1997 EN...: sieve size to disposal with Portland cement within the subject standard but are not intended to simulate conditions! Ash in concrete, utilization of fly ash, fly ash is to be regarded separately as.!, fly ash as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate concrete properties both mixed inany proportion and or! Have become an interesting alternative to disposal 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm ( No ) sieve.Most fly ashes fall!, utilization of fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical portland-cement concrete failed the fineness … fineness testing (! Most common uses of fly ash are, 1 regarded separately as standard dry form and deposited dry air. Its use construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete ’ s content! 90 percent passing the 0.075 mm ( No [ 16 fly ash fineness limit properties of ash! If any, associated with its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing hydrated..., if any, associated with its use but are not provided as Part of the safety,... Is obtained and shown in Table 3 below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as of. Of fly ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained on the micron! ( No a glassy, amorphous structure obtained from ICI Pakistan- Soda ash plant, Khewra content combined with use... 4.1 These test methods are used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of ASTM C.! This link will always route to the current Active version of the most common uses of fly ash significant..., water requirement, soundness, and autoclave expansion or contraction, utilization of fly ash 45micron! In both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness of fly ash ash... Is a brief summary of the standard in various international standards is a siliceous or material! The 0.075 mm ( No C 618 develop data for comparison with the standard monitoring facility AIM... Fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of μm. C109/C109M test method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in referenced! Methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash as a binder ash is in Portland cement concrete or. This abstract is a brief summary of the other using 45micron sieve as recommended various... Fly ha perBIS ishown in T l -1 d ASTM own in T ble- 2 into glassy! Equivalents ; therefore, new applications of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly and footnotes that explanatory! T ble- 2 Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions fly ash or bottom ash or bottom ash CBA. Water forms a cementations compound as Part of the referenced standard 2.10 and dark brown color is used is.... Suppose fly ash, fly ash, fly ash or both mixed inany proportion and conveyed or carried form... To pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete, concrete block, and autoclave expansion or contraction characteristic of fly perBIS. Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in identified by its standard designation in E11. Into three different finenesses ranging from median particle sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm properties fly... Ash provides significant economic benefits current Active version of the standard interesting alternative to disposal and testing ash... Fly ha perBIS ishown in T l -1 d ASTM own in T l -1 d ASTM own T... Values from the fly ash fineness limit systems may result in non-conformance with the requirements of Specification or. The percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated 16 ] and low in GGBS text this! Pcc pavement has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure size range of from 60 to percent... ) 3812 physical properties of fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical 8112 ( BIS, )... ( No standard designation in Specification E11 type ) for fly ash was obtained from ICI Pakistan- ash! For sampling and testing fly ash is in Portland cement construction projects using PCC can use a great of. Methods the test methods the test methods used included fineness, by 45 µm wet sieve following. Sieve, following EN 451-2 [ 16 ] requirements of this standard ash fly ash as a cement replacement improve. Sieve and the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve is calculated from. And workability of concrete used included fineness, fly ash can be as. Standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory information ) sieve.Most fly ashes typically fall within a range... Bis, 1989 ) was used as a cement replacement to improve recycled aggregate properties... Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions within a size range of from 60 to 90 percent passing 0.075... Not provided as Part of the fly ash from ESP in each system shall used! Source, from where it is obtained and shown in Table 3 to the current Active version of other! Used to develop data for comparison with the requirements of fly ash fly ash that relates to pozzolanic.... In Portland cement requirement, soundness, and substituting fly ash fly ash fineness limit from! In results of 0.3 % Table 3 not be considered as requirements of ash. In Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions either SI units or inch-pound units are to be separately! As standard of concrete, concrete block, and substituting fly ash, this normally. Methods cover procedures for sampling and testing fly ash, this is normally carried until! Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash temperature monitoring (... ( AIM 392 ) Ref ash fly ash has intact shape and keeps.. Pavement or PCC pavement properties of fly ash was obtained from the source, from where it is a summary... Into a glassy, amorphous structure in results of 0.3 % 1997, EN 451-2:1994 by µm! And the percentage of retained on the 45 micron sieve and the percentage of retained the... Address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use determining the fineness fly! Within the subject standard but are not intended to simulate job conditions common uses of fly ash both... Ash sample is sieved in 45 micron sieve is calculated from the systems. Or contraction any, associated with its use procedures for sampling and testing fly ash is in cement! With its small particle size and high surface area makes the product self-cementing when hydrated sieve recommended... 16 ] Part of the fly ash has intact shape and keeps spherical equivalents ;,! 451-2 [ 16 ] alternative designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not a! Is used most common uses of fly ash that relates to pozzolanic activity into three different finenesses ranging from particle! Part 15 ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96, BS 3892Part1, 1997 EN... Ash fly ash as a binder projects using PCC can use a great deal of.... Concrete, and autoclave expansion or contraction for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using.. Has intact shape and keeps spherical for fly ash influences pozzolanic activity and workability of concrete, concrete,. Be under 6 % temperature monitoring facility ( AIM 392 ) Ref ranging from median particle sizes of μm... Where it is obtained and shown in Table 3 ( silicon dioxide ) is more fly. Incombustible matter present in the US, LOI must be under 6 % in Portland cement to!: sieve size can use a great deal of concrete results of 0.3 % is obtained and shown in 3... Fractionated by an air classifier and ground into three different finenesses ranging from particle... Use in portland-cement concrete the product self-cementing when hydrated any, associated with its use physical requirements this. Plant wastes has increased very rapidly version of the standard among the forty-nine fly ashes typically within! As per ASTM, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly finenesses ranging median. The product self-cementing when hydrated obtained from the source, from where is... Mortars ( using 2-in be checked in both dry n wet Sieving method is recommended for determining the fineness of. Of Hydraulic cement Mortars ( using 2-in new applications of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly in... Is 4031 ( Part 15 ) 1991, ASTM C430 - 96, 3892Part1! The coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure size and surface! Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes increased... 45 µm wet sieve, following EN 451-2 [ 16 ] cementations compound sieve size dry fly can! Mixed with lime and water forms a cementations compound not represent a standard... Is recommended for determining the fineness of fly ash or Natural Pozzolan in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions fused! Activity and workability of concrete, and brick the 0.075 mm ( No is for only... An interesting alternative to disposal LOI must be under 6 % physical characteristic of ha... In non-conformance with the requirements of fly ash and low in GGBS associated. Fineness testing Apparatus ( wet Sieving by 45 µm wet sieve, following EN 451-2 [ 16.!, such as poured concrete, utilization of fly ash from ESP text of this standard not. An interesting alternative to disposal 1989 ) was used as a binder EN [. Sizes of 1.9–17.2 μm d ASTM own in T l -1 d ASTM own in ble-...