Retail sale should likely not be permitted with home cultivation. "There should be safe places for adults to consume the substance where underage persons are not allowed. We heard a great deal of concern about availability, or the ability to access cannabis in the amount required, when required. Indeed, Cannabis sativa is the botanical name for this ubiquitous herbaceous plant, which includes the drug type ("marijuana") as well as industrial hemp. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). We are grateful to Canadians for Fair Access to Medical Marijuana, the Arthritis Society, the Canadian AIDS Society, and the British Columbia Compassion Club Society for helping to facilitate a roundtable for patients. The current approach to marijuana prohibition is not working: The Government understands the complexity of this challenge and the need to take the time to get it right. The legalization of cannabis provides an opportunity to develop the knowledge base in both areas, but federal leadership and funding will be essential. Over the last few decades, changes in growing and production techniques have resulted in cannabis products with higher levels of THC. The successful implementation of a regulatory framework for cannabis will take time and require that governments meet a number of challenges with respect to capacity and infrastructure, oversight, co-ordination and communications. These uses vary widely between cultures. We are less certain about some of the longer-term effects (e.g., risks of permanent harms to mental functioning and risks of depression and anxiety disorders) but more certain about others (e.g., dependence). Marijuana produced commercially is tracked, which prevents producers from cultivating and holding material that is in excess of their plant limit. Under a regulated system, adults who choose to use cannabis should be able to carry it with them to use responsibly. Radhakrishnan et al. Cannabis-impaired driving should continue to be dealt with through federal criminal law, including more serious penalties for impaired driving causing injury or death. The Colorado officials with whom we met echoed this concern, noting that their partial restrictions for cannabis advertising made it challenging to avoid advertising that reaches, or is appealing to, youth. THC has therapeutic effects and is the compound chiefly responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD has potential therapeutic but no obvious psychoactive effects. Providing accurate information and advice about the products being sold, and their potential risks and harms of use; Enforcing the minimum-age restriction and helping prevent youth access; Helping control overconsumption by informing consumers about appropriate and responsible use, and preventing sales to intoxicated consumers; and. As well, illicit marijuana grow operations exist in all parts of Canada and in all types of communities. A robust and regulated production, distribution and retail network that meets demand in the domestic market will help curb the illicit market and help identify those who operate outside the legal market. There was some discussion about permitting cannabis use in designated public spaces, such as cannabis lounges, tasting rooms or social clubs. We are confident that with clear guidance to industry by the regulator and vigilant and predictable enforcement this is not an insurmountable barrier.  These substances may be used medically; recreationally; to purposefully improve performance or alter one's consciousness; as entheogens for ritual, spiritual, or shamanic purposes; or for research. The mandate entrusted to us was to design a framework with new rules that would define and set the parameters for how Canadians access cannabis in the future. These objectives are achieved largely through actions such as setting a minimum age for purchase, educational tools aimed at promoting responsible use, and taxation measures. The Task Force believes that Canada should prioritize engagement of Indigenous governments and representative organizations, as we heard from Indigenous leaders about their interest in their communities' participation in the cannabis market. As indicated below, a strong majority of online comments suggested that the best distribution model would consist of privately-owned storefronts or dispensaries, acted upon by market forces. Ultimately, the Task Force believes that this decision rests with individual jurisdictions, but regardless of the model chosen, we believe that certain standards should be put in place and followed. A significant number of consultation participants, whether online or in written submissions, expressed the view that awareness, information and education will be key to success, particularly where youth and parents are concerned. In the interests of patients, however, the Government should be prepared to expedite other broad changes to the regime should monitoring reveal that reasonable access is being compromised. In moving to enact this new regime with clear rules, criminal penalties should be reserved for the most serious offences. They argued that the real issue is impairment rather than the presence of any compound in the bodily fluid tested. of new psychoactive substances (NPS) entering the drug market. This is particularly the case in "safety-sensitive" industries, such as transportation, health care and law enforcement, where symptoms related to impairment - reduced mobility, co-ordination, perception or awareness - can increase the risks of hazards, injuries and death. Regardless of the distribution model ultimately chosen, significant efforts by all orders of government and by law enforcement will need to be put into shutting down illegal operations, be they store-fronts or internet operators. Adolescent Health Survey shows that youth who lived in challenging circumstances or who had experienced stressful life events, such as discrimination or physical or sexual abuse, were more likely to use cannabis frequently. Provincial, territorial and municipal governments; Experts in relevant fields, including but not limited to: public health, substance abuse, criminal justice, law enforcement, economics, and industry and those groups with expertise in production, distribution and sales; Indigenous governments and representative organizations; and, Ronald Abrahams - British Columbia Women's Hospital Association, Association des avocats et avocates de la dÃ©fense, Association pour la santÃ© publique du QuÃ©bec, Association quÃ©bÃ©coise des intervenants en cannabis mÃ©dical, Guillermo R. Aureano - UniversitÃ© de MontrÃ©al, DÃ©partement de science politique, Gary Barnes - Previous Chairman, Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs, Gary Bass - Retired Deputy Commissioner, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Renaldo Battista - Fonds de recherche du QuÃ©bec, B.C. However, as noted by stakeholders, investment in DRE training and staffing is currently insufficient. However, some organizations believed that a government monopoly would be the best approach to control and regulate the production of cannabis, noting that this model was best placed for controlling use, preventing diversion, minimizing advertising and helping to control pricing. Loflin and Earlywine (2014) A new method of cannabis ingestion: the danger of dabs? Indigenous peoples: Indigenous experts, representative organizations, governments and Elders were invited to participate in a variety of Task Force engagement activities, including in the expert roundtables, bilateral meetings and an Indigenous peoples roundtable. consumption of marijuana outside of personal dwellings (e.g., public space). Conversely, infrequent users with the same or lower THC concentrations may demonstrate more significant impairment; There is a significant combination effect when cannabis is consumed with alcohol, leading to a greater level of intoxication and motor control problems than when either substance is consumed alone; Roadside testing tools to measure THC presence in a driver's system are in development. Taken together, our experiences with these approaches have enabled the establishment of a system of cannabis production and sale that informs our thinking around the regulation of cannabis for non-medical purposes. Retail sales should be regulated by provinces and territories in close collaboration with municipalities. Moving forward, this type of regime with competitive market forces could be one model for production of marijuana. 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