Scientists say it is something like vibrations in the ringing of a bell. This predicts a Rayleigh wave speed of 2.3 to 2.9 m.s -1 , this figure being based upon the fact that the Rayleigh wave speed is about 0.9 times the shear wave speed … Ogden b,∗ a Faculty of Mathematics, Mechanics and Informatics, Hanoi National University, 334, Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam b Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW, UK Received 23 June 2003; received in revised form 18 August … Rayleigh waves are the slowest of all the seismic wave types and in some ways the most complicated. Also plot the variation of C 1 … Note that (2.16) is a necessary condition for the existence of a surface wave but may not be sufficient because of the possible presence of a limiting wave speed (see, for example, Chadwick and Wilson [14]). In this case, we set c1 = 0 and take the positive value of κc (z increases with depth); the negative value implies exponential growth with increasing depth, which cannot occur. Radial anisotropy is reliable to the depth of 140 km where both Rayleigh and Love waves have high sensitivity, but it cannot be well resolved at deeper depth due to the low sensi- Given the range of periods for the used Rayleigh and Love waves, shear wave speed in the crust and upper mantle can be well determined. The most damaging are the surface types—the Love waves and the Rayleigh waves. Like Love waves they are dispersive so the particular speed at which they travel depends on the wave period and the near-surface geologic structure, and they also decrease in amplitude with depth. Finally, an explicit … The wave animations illustrate wave characteristics and particle motion as listed in Table 1. The slowest body waves are secondary, or "S" waves. These waves circle the Earth sometimes for more than a week after a great earthquake. Seismic Wave Animations: Seismic wave animations for the P, S, Rayleigh and Love waves have been created using a 3-D grid shown in Figure 1. All wave types are designed to propagate in the X direction (illustrated in Figure 1) and parallel to the Earth’s surface. speed of surface waves. Like rolling ocean waves, Rayleigh waves move both vertically and horizontally in a vertical plane pointed in the direction in which the waves are travelling. In this paper the secular equation for the Rayleigh wave speed in an incompressible orthotropic elastic solid is obtained in a form that does not admit spurious solutions. It is then shown that inequalities on the material constants that ensure positive definiteness of the strain-energy function guarantee existence and uniqueness of the Rayleigh wave speed. 3. Rayleigh Waves. Thus, their speed and direction change. Surface waves Rayleigh waves The phase speed of the surface wave is by definition cs = ω/k, so from before: κc 2 = k2 1− c s c 2 If cs < c, then κc is real. Rayleigh waves circling the Earth The Rayleigh waves travel slightly slower at 7800 miles per hour while circling the globe. Several recent news items have discussed the risks to HS2 and the surrounding areas posed by Rayleigh Waves. the Rayleigh wave speed must satisfy the inequality (2.16) 0 <ρc2